ファシズムとは?

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ファシズム

ファシズムとは、ファシズムの意味

ファシズムとは、イタリアベニート・ムッソリーニと彼が率いた政党ファシスト党提唱した思想、および1922年から1943年にかけてのイタリア実践された政治体制のこと。転じて第二次世界大戦枢軸国陣営属すイタリアドイツなどで実践されていた独裁的権力反対勢力への徹底的弾圧産業商取引制御といった思想政体運動を指す意味として用いられることもある。第二次世界大戦中やそれ以降では、全体主義軍国主義包括して指す言葉としても使用されるようになった日本語では「結束主義」とも呼ばれる

ファシズムの語源

ファシズムの語源は、「束」や「集団」、「結束」を意味するイタリア語の「ファッショ(fascio)」である。ファッショにはさらに語源があり、ラテン語で斧の周り短杖束ねたものを意味する「ファスケス」から来ている。ファスケス古代ローマ執政官が、権力象徴として所持していた。ファシスト党の党章には、このファスケス意匠として組み込まれている。

ファシズムの定義

何をもってファシズムとするかの定義には諸説あるが、一般的な見方としては独裁一種であり、大衆扇動することで積極的な動員を図り、市民の自由や人権無視した国家政策を掲げ、反対派弾圧する政治体制思想を指すとされる。イタリアファシスト党ドイツナチ党が掲げる政策であり、合法的に他の政党解散させて反対勢力無くし、一党独裁体制を敷いた。同じ枢軸国日本では、戦争状態に移行する上で政党自発的に解散し、公事結社である大政翼賛会へと一本化され、軍部による政策大政翼賛会追認する翼賛体制成立しており、これもファシズムの一種として捉えられることがある事実大政翼賛会主導した近衛文麿は、ドイツナチ党見本として一国一党体制を敷くことを構想していた。しかし実態は各政党からの寄り合い所帯だったため、一党独裁とはやや様相異なっている。

ファシズムが生まれた背景

ファシズムが生まれ背景には、民衆支持がある。イタリアでは第一次世界大戦後発生したインフレーションによる国民生活基盤破壊や、領土拡張認められなかったことで、民衆の不満が高まっていた。労働者農民社会改革求めて各地暴動起こしたが、これをムッソリーニが率いるファシスト党武力によって鎮圧し、社会主義革命恐れ支配層や中産階級といった民衆支持集め1922年ローマ進軍によって政権握り一党独裁体制確立した。一方ドイツでは、第一次世界大戦敗戦によるダメージと、ヴェルサイユ条約による各国からの圧力によって国家疲弊していた。この社会不安乗じる形で、ナチ党を率いるヒトラーが行動力宣伝によってドイツ国民の心を掴み農民中産階級支持を受けて一党独裁実現した。

ファシズムの語の用法

ファシズムは第二次世界大戦以前には批判的用法用いられることはなく、批判的用法に転じたのは第二次世界大戦勃発後、連合国側が枢軸国側を指し用いたところからとされている。これは枢軸国敗北することで侮蔑としての扱い世界的に広まった。一方でドイツネオナチ日本楯の会欧州連合ヨーロッパ国民戦線など、戦後にファシズムを標榜する団体現れており、これらが掲げる思想戦中以前のファシズムと区別するために「ネオ・ファシズム」と呼称される。

ファシズムを比喩的用い用法もあり、主に急進的性質を持つ運動に対して批判的用いられることがある。例を挙げると、環境保護のために人間の自由や権利犠牲にしても良いとする立場エコファシズムイスラム過激派が掲げる急進的イスラム至上主義思想イスラムファシズム呼称されることが少なくない。ただし、こうした用法については議論も多いことに注意する必要がある


ファシズム【fascism】


ファシズム

〔名〕 (英 fascism狭義にはイタリアファシスタ党思想支配体制をさすが、広義には全世界強権的、独裁的思想および政治形態をさす。特に帝国主義時代以降後進資本主義国に出現する反議会主義的、反共産主義的な独裁体制。転じて、一般に、他の考え認めない独裁的権力体制国粋主義社会政策強調しつつ対外侵略政策をとる。

ロシアに入る(1924)〈荒畑寒村露都見聞した人「ファシズムに対す政策に関しては、世界共産党みな誤まれり、独り些の瑕瑾なきものロシア共産党あるのみ、と論断し」


ファシズム

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2021/12/19 05:51 UTC 版)

ファシズム: fascismo[1], : fascism[1], : Faschismus[1])または結束主義(けっそくしゅぎ)[2][3]とは、イタリアベニート・ムッソリーニと彼が率いた国家ファシスト党が提唱した思想イデオロギー政治運動、および1922年から1943年までの政権時に行った実践や体制の総称である[4][5][6][7]。広義にはドイツナチズムなど、独裁的な権力、反抗の弾圧と産業と商取引の制御のような類似の思想・運動・体制も含めて「ファシズム」と呼ばれる場合も多いが[4]、その範囲は多数の議論がある(詳細は用語定義等を参照)。


  1. ^ a b c 田中浩. 日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ) コトバンク. 2019年2月25日閲覧。
  2. ^ 泉, 宣道 (2020年). “【書評】原体験を踏まえ“トランプ後”の世界を占う:マデレーン・オルブライト著『ファシズム 警告の書』”. 公益財団法人ニッポンドットコム. 2021年8月24日閲覧。 “結束主義とも訳されるファシズムの語源は、イタリア語で「束(たば)」を意味するファッショ(fascio、単数)とされている。”
  3. ^ Mayu Uchida「タリブ・クウェリがジミー・ファロンのTV番組にて Black Lives Matter について語る:自身の抗議運動、存在する制度的な人種差別の現状やアメリカのトランプ政権について」『HYPEBEAST』、2020年6月7日。2020年7月2日閲覧。「トランプ大統領自身は結束主義者であるという自覚はないかもしれませんが、確実に結束主義的方向に進んでいます。(Donald Trump, he might not think he's a fascist, but he's moving in fascist ways.)」
  4. ^ a b 「(1)狭義では、イタリアのファシスト党の運動、並びに同党が権力を握っていた時期の政治的理念およびその体制。(2)広義では、イタリア-ファシズムと共通の本質をもつ傾向・運動・支配体制。(以下略)」(広辞苑第四版)
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  6. ^ fascism - Oxford Dictionary of Sociology
  7. ^ ブリタニカ国際大百科事典 小項目事典 コトバンク. 2019年2月25日閲覧。
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  10. ^ Doordan, Dennis P (1995). In the Shadow of the Fasces: Political Design in Fascist Italy. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-299-14874-2 
  11. ^ Parkins, Wendy (2002). Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-587-8 
  12. ^ ファッショか共産主義か 五来欣造 1933年7月12日、24頁
  13. ^ 岩田新の昭和17年の著書でも用例がある。大東亜建設法の理念と構造」1942年9月20日、1頁
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  29. ^ Turner, Henry Ashbyの「Reappraisals of Fascism、(New Viewpoints、1975年) P162では以下と記した「(ファシズムの)急進的で権威主義的なナショナリズムの目標」(goals of radical and authoritarian nationalism)
  30. ^ Payne, Stanleyは「en:University of Wisconsin Press」(1992年、P43)で、1923年から1977年のスペインのファシズムにおけるスペインのファシストen:José Antonio Primo de Riveraの目標を以下のように記した「若いJosé Antonioの主要な政治的情熱は、彼の父の著作の正しさの証明を長く保持したもので、彼は今、急進的で権威主義的なナショナリストの体制の概念化を試みた。(Young José Antonio's primary political passion was and would long remain the vindication of his father's work, which he was now trying to conceptualize in a radical, authoritarian nationalist form)
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    「It might well be claimed that Nazism and Italian fascism were separate species within the same genus, without any implicit assumption that the two species ought to be well-nigh identical. Ernst Nolte has stated that the differences could be easily reconciled by employing a term such as 'radical fascism' for Nazism. ... The establishment of fundamental generic characteristics linking Nazism to movements in other parts of Europe allows further consideration on a comparative basis of the reasons why such movements were able to become a real political danger and gain power in Italy and Germany, whereas in other European countries they remained an unpleasant, but transitory irritant…」

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ファシズム

出典:『Wiktionary』 (2021/08/21 13:39 UTC 版)

語源

英語「fascism」より。

名詞

ファシズム

  1. 第一次世界大戦イタリア興っ政治理念自由主義共産主義反対し、独裁的な政治体制対外的侵略政策主張する。

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