ファシズムとは?

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ファシズム

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2019/11/06 17:43 UTC 版)

ファシズム: fascismo[1], : fascism[1], : Faschismus[1])あるいは結束主義(けっそくしゅぎ)[2][3][4]とは、イタリアベニート・ムッソリーニと彼が率いた国家ファシスト党が提唱した思想イデオロギー政治運動、および1922年から1943年までの政権時に行った実践や体制の総称である[5][6][7][8]。広義にはドイツナチズムなど、独裁的な権力、反抗の弾圧と産業と商取引の制御のような類似の思想・運動・体制も含めて「ファシズム」と呼ばれる場合も多いが[5]、その範囲は多数の議論がある(詳細は用語定義等を参照)。




  1. ^ a b c 田中浩. 日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ) コトバンク. 2019年2月25日閲覧。
  2. ^ 不二出版、ゆのまえ, 知子、秋定, 嘉和『編集復刻版 買売春問題資料集成』第8巻、不二出版、1997年、242頁。
  3. ^ 大東亜建設法の理念と構造 岩田新 1942年9月20日
  4. ^ a b ファッショか共産主義か 五来欣造 1933年7月12日
  5. ^ a b 「(1)狭義では、イタリアのファシスト党の運動、並びに同党が権力を握っていた時期の政治的理念およびその体制。(2)広義では、イタリア-ファシズムと共通の本質をもつ傾向・運動・支配体制。(以下略)」(広辞苑第四版)
  6. ^ Fasism - thefreedictionary.com
  7. ^ fascism - Oxford Dictionary of Sociology
  8. ^ ブリタニカ国際大百科事典 小項目事典 コトバンク. 2019年2月25日閲覧。
  9. ^ New World, Websters (2005). Webster's II New College Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. ISBN 0-618-39601-2. 
  10. ^ Payne, Stanley (1995). A History of Fascism, 1914–45. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-14874-2. 
  11. ^ Doordan, Dennis P (1995). In the Shadow of the Fasces: Political Design in Fascist Italy. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-299-14874-2. 
  12. ^ Parkins, Wendy (2002). Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-587-8. 
  13. ^ 国家社会主義とは何かレフ・トロツキー
  14. ^ “「抗日勝利行事働き掛けを 習主席が国連事務総長に 五輪を政治利用?」”. 産経新聞. (2014年2月7日). オリジナルの2014年2月7日時点によるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20140207174725/http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/140207/chn14020722250004-n1.htm 2014年2月7日閲覧。 
  15. ^ “George Orwell: ‘What is Fascism?’”. Orwell.ru. (2008年1月8日). http://orwell.ru/library/articles/As_I_Please/english/efasc 
  16. ^ “ジョージ・オーウェル: ‘ファシズムとは何か’”. http://open-shelf.appspot.com/others/WhatIsFascism.html 
  17. ^ Gregor. Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought, Princeton University Press, 2005 p. 4 ISBN 0-691-12009-9
  18. ^ George Orwell, What is Fascism? Orwell.ru
  19. ^ a b Griffiths, Richard (2000). An Intelligent Person's Guide to Fascism. Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-2918-2. http://books.google.com/?id=Y668AAAACAAJ&dq=Griffiths,+Richard. 
  20. ^ Woolf, Stuart (1981). Fascism in Europe. Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-30240-0. http://books.google.com/?id=iaMOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA18. 
  21. ^ Gregor, A. James (2002). Phoenix: Fascism in Our Time. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-7658-0855-2. 
  22. ^ a b Payne, Stanley G (1983). Fascism, Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-08064-1. 
  23. ^ a b 西川正雄 1967, pp. 2.
  24. ^ Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science p. 420-421, 2004 Taylor and Francis.
  25. ^ Kallis, Aristotle, ed. (2003). The Fascism Reader, London: Routledge, pages 84–85.
  26. ^ Renton, David. Fascism: Theory and Practice, p. 21, London: Pluto Press, 1999.
  27. ^ Girvin, Brianの「The Right in the Twentieth Century」(Pinter、1994年)P83ではファシズムを「反自由主義の急進主義的な権威主義のナショナリストの運動」(anti-liberal radical authoritarian nationalist movement)。
  28. ^ Turner, Henry Ashbyの「Reappraisals of Fascism、(New Viewpoints、1975年) P162では以下と記した「(ファシズムの)急進的で権威主義的なナショナリズムの目標」(goals of radical and authoritarian nationalism)
  29. ^ Payne, Stanleyは「en:University of Wisconsin Press」(1992年、P43)で、1923年から1977年のスペインのファシズムにおけるスペインのファシストen:José Antonio Primo de Riveraの目標を以下のように記した「若いJosé Antonioの主要な政治的情熱は、彼の父の著作の正しさの証明を長く保持したもので、彼は今、急進的で権威主義的なナショナリストの体制の概念化を試みた。(Young José Antonio's primary political passion was and would long remain the vindication of his father's work, which he was now trying to conceptualize in a radical, authoritarian nationalist form)
  30. ^ Larsen, Stein Ugelvikや Hagtvet, Berntや Myklebust, Jan Petterは「Who were the Fascists: social roots of European Fascism」(p.424)で、ファシズムの参照用定義(reference calls)を「統合された急進的なナショナリストの権威主義の、組織的な体制」(organized form of integrative radical nationalist authoritarianism)と記した
  31. ^ Sternhell, Zeev; Sznajder, Mario; Ashéri, Maia; Massel, David (translation). The birth of fascist ideology: from cultural rebellion to political revolution. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press: 1994. pp. 189–190.
  32. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A history of fascism, 1914–1945. Oxon: The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, 2005 (digital edition). p. 112.
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  38. ^ "We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century." ... "We are free to believe that this is the 'collective' century, and thus the century of the state. It is eminently reasonable for a new doctrine to make use of still-vital elements from other doctrines," ... "Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people." (p. 14) "The Fascist negation of socialism, democracy, liberalism, should not, however, be interpreted as implying a desire to drive the world backwards to positions occupied prior to 1789, a year commonly referred to as that which opened the demo-liberal century. History does not travel backwards. The Fascist doctrine has not taken De Maistre as its prophet. Monarchical absolutism is of the past, and so is ecclesiolatry. Dead and done for are feudal privileges and the division of society into closed, uncommunicating castes. Neither has the Fascist conception of authority anything in common with that of a police ridden State." ... "Fascism is therefore opposed to Socialism to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon. But when brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognises the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade-unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonised in the unity of the State." (p.15) "In rejecting democracy Fascism rejects the absurd conventional lie of political equalitarianism, the habit of collective irresponsibility, the myth of felicity and indefinite progress." ... "Fascism denies that numbers, as such, can be the determining factor in human society; it denies the right of numbers to govern by means of periodical consultations; it asserts the irremediable and fertile and beneficent inequality of men who cannot be leveled by any such mechanical and extrinsic device as universal suffrage." Doctrine of Fascism.
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    「It might well be claimed that Nazism and Italian fascism were separate species within the same genus, without any implicit assumption that the two species ought to be well-nigh identical. Ernst Nolte has stated that the differences could be easily reconciled by employing a term such as 'radical fascism' for Nazism. ... The establishment of fundamental generic characteristics linking Nazism to movements in other parts of Europe allows further consideration on a comparative basis of the reasons why such movements were able to become a real political danger and gain power in Italy and Germany, whereas in other European countries they remained an unpleasant, but transitory irritant…」

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  333. ^ 『社会学小辞典』(有斐閣・1982年・増補版)の「天皇制ファシズム」の項には〈日本の場合、イタリアやドイツなどのような「下から」の運動による国家権力の掌握ではなく、天皇制国家権力自体が「上から」なし崩し的にファシズム化していったので、天皇制ファシズムと呼ばれる。〉とある。
  334. ^ Yahoo!百科事典(小学館『日本大百科全書』)の「ファシズム」の項目
  335. ^ 『ブリタニカ国際大百科事典』、平凡社『世界大百科事典』の「ファシズム」の項目
  336. ^ 大辞泉 Archived 2011年5月19日, at the Wayback Machine.
  337. ^ Dongyoun Hwang. Wang Jingwei, The National Government, and the Problem of Collaboration. Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University. UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor Michigain. 2000, 118.
  338. ^ a b c d Larsen, Stein Ugelvik (ed.). Fascism Outside of Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. ISBN 0880339888. p. 255.
  339. ^ Payne, Stanley G., A history of fascism, 1914–1945. (University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), p. 352
  340. ^ Elsa Marston, "Fascist Tendencies in Pre-War Arab Polocies: A study of Three Arab Political Movements, [PPS, Misr al-Fatat, and Futuwa]," Middle East Forum, 35 (May, 1959), pp. 19–22 Google Books
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  342. ^ Confronting fascism in Egypt: dictatorship versus democracy in the 1930s. Stanford University Press. (2009). ISBN 0804763445. http://books.google.com/?id=Aukt0sWDJcsC&pg=PA321. 
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  345. ^ Stanley G. Payne (1996). A history of fascism, 1914-1945. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299148742. http://books.google.com/?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C. 
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  366. ^ The Near East since the First World War: a history to 1995 By Malcolm Yapp, Longman, 1996, p. 113, Google Books
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  368. ^ Hirszowicz, Lukasz, The Third Reich and the Arab East (London: Routledge & K. Paul, Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1966)
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  370. ^ Christianity in Iraq: its origins and development to the present day, Suha Rassam, Gracewing Publishing, 2005, p. 161 Google Books
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  373. ^ Newsweek, 1940. Books.google.com. (2009-09-29). http://books.google.com/?id=9OvjAAAAMAAJ&cd=27&dq=arabs 2010年6月4日閲覧。. 
  374. ^ Orit Bashkin (2009). The other Iraq: pluralism and culture in Hashemite Iraq, Volume 2008. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804759928. http://books.google.com/?id=WRH16rEBLKQC&pg=PA58. 
  375. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen and Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Bernard Lewis, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 4, (Brill, 1954) p. 125
  376. ^ Israel Gershoni, James Jankowski, James P. Jankowski (2009). Confronting fascism in Egypt: dictatorship versus democracy in the 1930s. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804763445. http://books.google.com/?id=Aukt0sWDJcsC&pg=PA273. 
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  386. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 4, by Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Bernard Lewis, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht, 1954, p. 125 Google Books
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  424. ^ 吹田尚一 2004, pp. 22.
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  427. ^ Anthony James Gregor. Interpretations of fascism. 6th ed. New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers, 2006 p. 135.
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