細菌とは? わかりやすく解説

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さい‐きん【細菌】


細菌

【英】: Bacteria
バクテリアとも呼ばれている。0.210μm100万分のメートル)ぐらいで、ウイルスより大きく固い細胞壁を持つ単細胞生物である。
その種類は非常に多く確認されるが、形態により、球菌桿菌、らせん分けられ、グラム染色性(細菌染色法)によってグラム陽性菌グラム陰性菌大別される。

細胞分裂により増殖し、その個体は、それぞれに成長分裂能力をもっている。無機物のみで発育する自力栄養有機物を必要とする他力栄養があり、発酵呼吸(嫌気性菌好気性菌)によってエネルギーを得る。有用な細菌は、発酵細菌としアルコール酢酸変える酢酸菌糖類発酵させ乳酸産出する乳酸菌ヨーグルトチーズバター漬物)が主なものとされる。このほか、寄生するものや病原性有するものもある。

医療分野では抗生物質ワクチン製造などで利用され、免疫機能遺伝機序など、生物学研究にも幅広く用いられている

ウイルス

細胞

遺伝


細菌 (さいきん)

微生物で、顕微鏡で見ることができます。人に有害な細菌、たとえば体の中入り込んで病気起こすものもありますが、人の生活に有用な細菌(納豆作る納豆菌など)もありますまた、人と共生している細菌も。代表が腸内にいるビフィズス菌でしょう皮膚鼻の穴には黄色ブドウ球菌などもよく住んでいます。ちなみに黄色ブドウ球菌は、大人または健康な皮膚にはなんでもないですが、皮膚が傷ついていたり抵抗力落ちていたりすると、「とびひ」を起こすこともあります(子どもに多い病気ですが、大人でもなることがあります)。このように状況によって人に有害になったりならなかったりするを「日和見ひよりみきん)」と呼んだりします。なお、こうした病気起こす細菌を退治する抗菌薬です

細菌

Bacterium

【概要】 バクテリア(複数形)とも言う細胞膜の外に細胞壁があり、分類上は植物一つ細胞一匹生命体細胞中にはがなく、遺伝子DNAである。細菌のうち、圧倒的多くのものはヒトを含む高等生物共存共栄している。ヒトに対して病気起こす細菌は病原菌よばれる。 

【詳しく】 細菌の中に多く分類がある。ヒトの体には細菌がいっぱい住んでいる皮膚には表皮ぶどう球菌がいる。気管支の細い所から肺は無菌状態だが、上気道つまり、鼻、口、のどには、ビリダンス連鎖球菌、ナイセリアなどがいる。尿自体無菌であるが、尿道口近く膣内にはぶどう球菌グラム陽性桿菌がいる。腸内には正常な腸内細菌腸球菌嫌気性菌などがいる。膣にはデーデルライン桿菌がいる。これら常在菌頑張っているので病原菌生えにくくなっている。

《参照》 細胞遺伝子DNA


細菌

【仮名】さいきん
原文bacteria

多数の種から構成される一群単細胞微生物動物人間感染して疾患引き起こすものも存在する。「bacteria(細菌)」の単数形は「bacterium」である。

細菌(バクテリア)

膜のない原核生物属す単細胞微生物一種です。細菌の大きさ0.1
μm(1 μm100万分の1 m)で、球状桿状・らせん状などの形態です。二分裂繰り返し増殖し、一部のものは芽胞をつくります。広く生態系の中で物質循環重要な役割を果たします。

細菌[Acid-fast bacilli]

 広い意味では、酵母カビや細菌などの総称名として用いられる専門的には、ヒトを含む動物細胞異なり植物に特有の細胞壁を最外側に持つが、葉緑体は持たない。核膜存在しないのでが無い(カビを持つ)単細胞生物である。有名な抗生物質であるペニシリン細胞壁合成阻害するので、細菌には有効に作用するが動物細胞には無効である。肉眼では見えない光学顕微鏡観察できる。

細菌(さいきん)


細 菌

菌体2つ別れ増殖するので分裂呼ばれている。種類極めて多く人に病原性与え病原細菌、食品増殖して腐敗させる腐敗細菌等があり食品汚染し、食中毒原因ともなり食品衛生問題になる事が多い。  

細菌

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2022/03/17 14:43 UTC 版)

細菌(さいきん、真正細菌ラテン語: bacterium、複数形 bacteria、バクテリア)とは、古細菌真核生物とともに全生物界を三分する、生物の主要な系統(ドメイン)の一つである。語源はギリシャ語の「小さな杖」(βακτήριον)に由来する[1]。細菌と古細菌は、合わせて原核生物と呼ばれる。真核生物と比較した場合、非常に単純な構造を持つ一方で、はるかに多様な代謝系や栄養要求性を示す。


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細菌

出典:『Wiktionary』 (2021/07/11 22:43 UTC 版)

この単語漢字
さい
第二学年
きん
常用漢字
音読み 音読み

発音

名詞

(さいきん)

  1. 真正細菌のこと。原核生物のうち古細菌を除いたもの。→バクテリア (Bacteria)。
  2. 原核生物総称真正細菌古細菌含まれる。→狭義微生物 (Microbe)。

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