免疫系 免疫学とその歴史

免疫系

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2017/09/09 18:45 UTC 版)

免疫学とその歴史

免疫学は免疫系の構造と機能を研究する科学である。

これは医学から生まれ初期の研究は病気に対する免疫の原因についてであった。免疫に最初に言及したのは、知られる限りでは、BC430年アテネの悪疫流行の間である。ツキジデスは、以前病気にかかって回復した人々は患者を看護しても2度罹ることはないと記した[113]。このようにして観察された獲得免疫はのちにルイ・パスツールによって探求され、ワクチン接種の開発や病気の微生物原因論の提案に結びついた[114]。パスツールの理論は病気の当時流布していた瘴気論のような理論に真っ向から立ち向かうもので、この証明は、1891年にロバート・コッホによってなされた微生物が感染症の原因であることの証明まで待たねばならなかったが、コッホは1905年にノーベル賞に輝いた[115]。1901年のウォールター・リード英語版による、黄熱病ウイルス発見の際、ウイルスがヒト病原体として確認された[116]

免疫学は19世紀終わりに向かって長足の進歩を遂げたが、急速な発展の中に体液性免疫および細胞性免疫の研究[117] で特に重要なのはパウル・エールリヒの仕事であり、彼は抗原-抗体反応の特異性の説明に側鎖説を唱えた。体液性免疫の理解に対する貢献は、細胞性免疫研究の立役者であるイリヤ・メチニコフと共同で1908年ノーベル賞受賞したことで認められた[118]

関連項目

免疫
細胞造血幹細胞由来)
分子
異物
炎症
異常、障害、免疫疾患
医薬品

外部リンク




[ヘルプ]
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