仏教とキリスト教とは?

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仏教とキリスト教

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2013/07/02 12:33 UTC 版)

ガウタマ・ブッダイエス・キリストの間には、そして仏教キリスト教の間には類似点が見いだせるため、両者の間に関係があるかどうかが考察されている。両者間の類似は、ヘレニズム世界とインド亜大陸の文化的交流に起因すると推測されている。




  1. ^ a b c d e Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 160
  2. ^ Daniel Hopkins Father and Son, East is West, the Buddhist sources to Christianity and their influence on medieval Christianity self published 2007
  3. ^ Armstrong on Buddhism & Christianity
  4. ^ W.L. King, Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding, Philadelphia, 1963.
  5. ^ Tinker, Hugh (1966). South Asia: A Short History. Frederick A. Praeger. p. 83. 
  6. ^ The Dalai Lama,The Good Heart: A Buddhist Perspective on the Teachings of Jesus, ISBN 0-86171-138-6
  7. ^ Thich Nhat Hahn, Going Home: Jesus and Buddha as Brothers, 1999. ISBN 1573228303
  8. ^ Arthur Versluis, American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions, 1993.
  9. ^ Origin of Pagan Idolatry Ascertained from Historical Testimony, page 649
  10. ^ Max Müller (1883), s India: What it Can Teach Us
  11. ^ http://faculty.deanza.edu/lesliewallis/stories/storyReader$158
  12. ^ Rudolf Seydel, The Gospel of Jesus in relation to the Buddha Legend
  13. ^ Rudolf Seydel (1897), The Buddha Legend and the Life of Jesus
  14. ^ History of Religions, 1918, E. Washburn Hopkins, Professor of Sanskrit and comparative Philology, p 552,556
  15. ^ Tweed, Thomas (2000). The American Encounter With Buddhism, 1844-1912: Victorian Culture and the Limits of Dissent. University of North Carolina Press. p. 280. ISBN 0807849065. 
  16. ^ Zacharias P. Thundy (1992), Buddha and Christ, Nativity stories from the Indian traditions
  17. ^ a b The Secrets about Christian Lindtner-a preliminary response to the CLT”. 2012年2月25日閲覧。
  18. ^ J Duncan M Derrett (2001), The Bible and the Buddhist. Sardini, Bornato
  19. ^ Christian Lindtner (2007), Geheimnisse um Jesus Christus
  20. ^ Daniel Hopkins (2007), Father and Son, East is West, the Buddhist sources to Christianity and their influence on medieval myths
  21. ^ [要出典]
  22. ^ Arthur Lillie (1893)
  23. ^ Arthur Lillie (1893), “Chap. II. BUDDHA”. pp. 26-27. http://www.archive.org/stream/influenceofbuddh00lill#page/26/mode/2up. "A tree (palasa, the scarlet butea) bent down its branches and overshadowed her, and Buddha came forth, Voltaire says that in the library of Berne there is a copy of the First Gospel of the Infancy, which records that a palm tree bent down in a similar manner to Mary. {" CEuvrcs," vol. xl.)" 
  24. ^ Arthur Lillie (1893), “Chap. II. BUDDHA”. pp. 29-30. http://www.archive.org/stream/influenceofbuddh00lill#page/28/mode/2up. 
  25. ^ Arthur Lillie (1893), “Chap. II. BUDDHA”. pp. 27-28. http://www.archive.org/stream/influenceofbuddh00lill#page/26/mode/2up. "In the "Lalita Vistara" Buddha is carried to the temple. Plainly we have the same ceremony. There the idols bow down to him as in the First Gospel of the Infancy the idol in Egypt bows down to Jesus. In Luke the infant Jesus is also taken to the temple by his parents to "do for him after the custom of the law." (Luke ii. 27.) What law ? Certainly not the Jewish." 
  26. ^ Karetzky, Patricia (2000), Early Buddhist Narrative Art p. xxi
  27. ^ R. von Garbe (1914), Indien un dus Christentum. Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck. pp. 56-59
  28. ^ Jesus' walking on the sea: an investigation of the origin of the narrative
  29. ^ Beverley, James A., Human Idols, Christianity Today 2007年4月20日現在
  30. ^ "Gospel of Thomas:The Buddhist Jesus?" Retrieved April 15, 2007.
  31. ^ Paul Reps, zen Flesh, Zen Bones, 101 Zen Stories; #16
  32. ^ Archelaus (Bishop of Cascar in Mesopotamia, d. about 278), Acta Disputationis cum Manete Haeresiarcha. Originally written in Syriac, and so far belonging to the Oriental Christian Sources (Comp. Jerome, de Vir. Ill. 72), but extant only in a Latin translation, which seems to have been made from the Greek, edited by Zacagni (Rome, 1698), and Routh (in Reliquiae Sacrae, vol. V. 3-206)
  33. ^ Eng. transl. in Clark's Ante-Nicene Library (vol. XX. 272-419) [Am. ed. vol. VI. p. 173 sq.]
  34. ^ Andre Grabar mentions Buddhist iconography of the birth of the Buddha as a possible source for the Christian depiction of the birth of Jesus Christ. Andre Grabar, p129
  35. ^ Andre Grabar, p129
  36. ^ a b Foucher, "The beginnings of Buddhist art", p.271
  37. ^ Palmer, Martin. The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Scrolls of Taoist Christianity. New York: Ballantine, 2001. pp. 241-243
  38. ^ 『かくれキリシタン』_歴史と民俗_(片岡弥吉・著)243-244頁、日本放送出版協会、ISBN 978-4140010563
  39. ^ R. E. Sherman (2011), Buddha and Jesus: Could Solomon Be the Missing Link?. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. pp 45-152.
  40. ^ 1 Chronicles 22:6-9
  41. ^ 1 Kings 11:4-8
  42. ^ Ecclesiastes 1:2
  43. ^ Ecclesiastes 4:1-2 & 5:15-17
  44. ^ Proverbs 6:20-23 & 7:1-3
  45. ^ Proverbs 4:5-7
  46. ^ Proverbs 4:18
  47. ^ Joseph Jacobs (ed. and inducer), Barlaam and Josaphat. English Lives of Buddha (David Nutt, London, 1896) xvi-xvii
  48. ^ Chandramouli, N. S. (1997-05-01). Did Buddhism influence early Christianity?. The Times of India. 
  49. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1878 edition, article Buddhism by T.W. Rhys Davids
  50. ^ Crooke, William (1904). Things Indian: Being Discursive Notes on Various Subjects Connected with India. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. http://books.google.com/?id=o6UCAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA5-PA407&lpg=RA5-PA407&dq=rosary+india+crusades#PPP12,M1 2007年1月14日閲覧。. 
  51. ^ a b Ciaravino, Helene. How to Pray. Garden City Park, New York: Square One. http://www.christiangateway.com/community/prayer/articles/f_lib_article_hc_christian.html. 
  52. ^ Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol 3, 1921
  53. ^ a b Maguire, Jack (2001). Essential Buddhism. Simon and Schuster. pp. 159–160. ISBN 0671041886. 
  54. ^ Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol 3. Charles Eliot 20 of 22: Egypt was a most religious country, but it does not appear that asceticism, celibacy or meditation formed part of its older religious life, and their appearance in Hellenistic times may be due to a wave of Asiatic influence starting originally from India. [1]
  55. ^ Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Part I: Our Oriental Heritage (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963), 422
  56. ^ Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Part I: Our Oriental Heritage (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963), 479.
  57. ^ "The Silk Road city of Marv (Grk. Margiana), situated in the eastern part of the Parthian Empire, became a major Buddhist center" Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road", p47
  58. ^ 1. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage, Part One (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1935), vol. 1, p. 449.
  59. ^ Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21
  60. ^ Mackenzie, Donald A. (1928), Buddhism in pre-Christian Britain, p. 42
  61. ^ a b 近藤智彦「ヘレニズム哲学」『西洋哲学史II 「知」の変貌・「信」の階梯』講談社選書メチエ、2011年12月10日、ISBN:978-4062585156 、p37
  62. ^ Latourette, Kenneth Scott (1975). A History of Christianity.  p. 274
  63. ^ Bentley, Jerry H. (1993). Old World Encounters. Cross-cultural contacts and exchanges in pre-modern times. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507639-7. 
  64. ^ Iqbal Singh, S. Radhakrishnan, Arvind Sharma, (2004-06-24)). The Buddhism Omnibus: Comprising Gautama Buddha, The Dhammapada, and The Philosophy of Religion. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195668987. 
  65. ^ Brockman, John (2003年7月17日). “The Politics of Christianity: A Talk with Elaine Pagels”. The Third Culture. Edge Foundation, Inc.. 2009年7月7日閲覧。
  66. ^ Strabo, Geography Bk XV, Ch1, 73
  67. ^ Hist 54.9,
  68. ^ 69,1
  69. ^ Charles Eliot (1921, reprint 1990), Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch vol 1. Richmond: Curzon Press. ISBN 07007067980. p 431 fn 4.
  70. ^ Elledge CD. Life After Death in Early Judaism. Mohr Siebeck Tilbringen 2006 ISBN 316148875X pp122-125
  71. ^ Cyril of Jerusalem, Sixth Catechetical Lecture Chapter 22-24
    "22. There was in Egypt one Scythianus, a Saracen by birth, having nothing in common either with Judaism or with Christianity. This man, who dwelt at Alexandria and imitated the life of Aristotle, composed four books, one called a Gospel which had not the acts of Christ, but the mere name only, and one other called the book of Chapters, and a third of Mysteries, and a fourth, which they circulate now, the Treasure. This man had a disciple, Terebinthus by name. But when Scythianus purposed to come into Judaea, and make havoc of the land, the Lord smote him with a deadly disease, and stayed the pestilence.
    23. But Terebinthus, his disciple in this wicked error, inherited his money and books and heresy, and came to Palestine, and becoming known and condemned in Judaea he resolved to pass into Persia: but lest he should be recognised there also by his name he changed it and called himself Buddas. However, he found adversaries there also in the priests of Mithras: and being confuted in the discussion of many arguments and controversies, and at last hard pressed, he took refuge with a certain widow. Then having gone up on the housetop, and summoned the daemons of the air, whom the Manichees to this day invoke over their abominable ceremony of the fig, he was smitten of God, and cast down from the housetop, and expired: and so the second beast was cut off.
    24. The books, however, which were the records of his impiety, remained; and both these and his money the widow inherited. And having neither kinsman nor any other friend, she determined to buy with the money a boy named Cubricus: him she adopted and educated as a son in the learning of the Persians, and thus sharpened an evil weapon against mankind. So Cubricus, the vile slave, grew up in the midst of philosophers, and on the death of the widow inherited both the books and the money. Then, lest the name of slavery might be a reproach, instead of Cubricus he called himself Manes, which in the language of the Persians signifies discourse. For as he thought himself something of a disputant, he surnamed himself Manes, as it were an excellent master of discourse. But though he contrived for himself an honourable title according to the language of the Persians, yet the providence of God caused him to become a self-accuser even against his will, that through thinking to honour himself in Persia, he might proclaim himself among the Greeks by name a maniac." Catholic Encyclopedia (Public Domain, quoted in [2])
  72. ^ イェルサリムの総主教キリル全書 (Public Domain, quoted in [3], 73/274)
  73. ^ Jerome-Against-Jovinianus, 815, Online Viewing: http://www.patriarchywebsite.com/bib-patriarchy/Jerome-Against-Jovinianus.txt
  74. ^ Andre Grabar "Christian iconography, a study of its origins", p129
  75. ^ Nahum N. Glatzer The Judaic Tradition pp90 1982 The Sect of the Therapeutae
  76. ^ Scouteris, Constantine. “The Therapeutae of Philo and the Monks as Therapeutae according to Pseudo-Dionysius”. 2012年2月25日閲覧。
  77. ^ Henry, Chadwick (2001). Christianity Two Thousand Years. Oxford University Press. 
  78. ^ JewishEncyclopedia.com - ASCETICISM:
  79. ^ Gruber, Elmar and Kersten, Holger. (1995). The Original Jesus. Shaftesbury: Element Books. 
  80. ^ The Nag Hammadi library in English p7 Marvin W. Meyer, James McConkey Robinson - 1977 "Thus the history of Gnosticism, as documented in the Nag Hammadi library, takes up about where the history of the Essenes, as documented by the Dead Sea Scrolls, breaks off. Later Jewish mystical traditions, traced especially by Gershom .."
  81. ^ Elaine Pagels. “Extract from The Gnostic Gospels”. pbs.org. 2007年4月22日閲覧。
  82. ^ Pagels, Elaine (1979, repr. 1989). The Gnostic Gospels. New York: Random House. 
  83. ^ Hidden Gospels:How the Search for Jesus Lost Its Way Oxford University Press, 2002 Publishers description "This incisive critique thoroughly and convincingly debunks the claims that recently discovered texts such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary, and even the Dead Sea Scrolls undermine the historical validity of the New Testament. Jenkins places the recent controversies surrounding the hidden gospels in a broad historical context and argues that, far from being revolutionary, such attempts to find an alternative Christianity date back at least to the Enlightenment."
  84. ^ Jenkins, Philip. How Gnostic Jesus Became the Christ of Scholars.  "He attributes this bias to both a postmodern search for meaning and a lay audience hungry for religious truth, while noting that only new interpretations advance academic careers and attract media attention"
  85. ^ Conze, Edward. Buddhism and Gnosis. 
  86. ^ Swami Abhedananda (1987). Journey into Kashmir and Tibet (the English translation of Kashmiri 0 Tibbate). Calcutta: Ramakrishna Vivekananda Math. 
  87. ^ Goodspeed, Edgar J. (1956). Famous Biblical Hoaxes or, Modern Apocrypha. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. http://www.tentmaker.org/books/FamousBiblicalHoaxes.html. 
  88. ^ Prophet, Elizabeth Clare (1987). The Lost Years of Jesus: Documentary Evidence of Jesus' 17-Year Journey to the East. Livingston, Montana: Summit University Press. p. 468. ISBN 0-916766-87-X. 
  89. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (February 2011). “8. Forgeries, Lies, Deceptions, and the Writings of the New Testament. Modern Forgeries, Lies, and Deceptions” (EPUB). Forged: Writing in the Name of God—Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are. (First Edition. EPub Edition. ed.). New York: HarperCollins e-books. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. http://www.scribd.com/doc/55685655/Forged 2011年9月8日閲覧。. 
  90. ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 494
  91. ^ Theravada - Mahayana Buddhism By Ven. Dr. W. Rahula http://www.buddhistinformation.com/theravada.htm






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