中世後期とは?

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中世後期

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2019/05/09 03:10 UTC 版)

中世後期(ちゅうせいこうき)は、西洋史学における中世盛期の後に続く14・15世紀頃(c. 1300年-1500年)の時代を指す時期区分である。中世後期に続くのは近世ルネサンス)である。




  1. ^ Cantor, p. 480.
  2. ^ Cantor, p. 594.
  3. ^ a b 下記を参照のこと。
  4. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 3; Holmes, p. 294; Koenigsberger, pp. 299–300.
  5. ^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Jones, p. 21.
  6. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 29; Cantor, p. 514; Koenigsberger, pp. 300–3.
  7. ^ Brady et al., p. xvii; Holmes, p. 276; Ozment, p. 4.
  8. ^ Hollister, p. 366; Jones, p. 722.
  9. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 703
  10. ^ Bagge, Sverre; Mykland, Knut (1989). Norge i dansketiden: 1380–1814 (2nd ed.). Oslo: Cappelen. ISBN 9788202123697. 
  11. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 673.
  12. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 193.
  13. ^ Alan Cutler (1997年8月13日). “The Little Ice Age: When global cooling gripped the world”. The Washington Post. 2008年3月12日閲覧。
  14. ^ Jones, pp. 348–9.
  15. ^ Jones, pp. 350–1; Koenigsberger, p. 232; McKisack, p. 40.
  16. ^ Jones, p. 351.
  17. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 458; Koenigsberger, p. 309.
  18. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 458; Nicholas, pp. 32–3.
  19. ^ Hollister, p. 353; Jones, pp. 488–92.
  20. ^ McKisack, pp. 228–9.
  21. ^ Hollister, p. 355; Holmes, pp. 288-9; Koenigsberger, p. 304.
  22. ^ Duby, p. 288-93; Holmes, p. 300.
  23. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 450-5; Jones, pp. 528-9.
  24. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 355; Koenigsberger, p. 304.
  25. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 363; Koenigsberger, pp. 306-7.
  26. ^ Holmes, p. 311–2; Wandycz, p. 40
  27. ^ Hollister, p. 362; Holmes, p. 280.
  28. ^ Cantor, p. 507; Hollister, p. 362.
  29. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 152–153; Cantor, p. 508; Koenigsberger, p. 345.
  30. ^ Wandycz, p. 38.
  31. ^ Wandycz, p. 40.
  32. ^ Jones, p. 737.
  33. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 318; Wandycz, p. 41.
  34. ^ Jones, p. 7.
  35. ^ Martin, pp. 100–1.
  36. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 322; Jones, p. 793; Martin, pp. 236–7.
  37. ^ Martin, p. 239.
  38. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 754; Koenigsberger, p. 323.
  39. ^ Allmand, p. 769; Hollister, p. 368.
  40. ^ Hollister, p. 49.
  41. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 771–4; Mango, p. 248.
  42. ^ Hollister, p. 99; Koenigsberger, p. 340.
  43. ^ Jones, pp. 796–7.
  44. ^ Jones, p. 875.
  45. ^ a b Hollister, p. 360; Koenigsberger, p. 339.
  46. ^ Hollister, p. 338.
  47. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 586; Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260.
  48. ^ Allmand, pp. 150, 155; Cantor, p. 544; Hollister, p. 326.
  49. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 547; Hollister, p. 363; Holmes, p. 258.
  50. ^ Cantor, p. 511; Hollister, p. 264; Koenigsberger, p. 255.
  51. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 577.
  52. ^ Hollister, p. 356; Koenigsberger, p. 314; Reilly, p. 209.
  53. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 162; Hollister, p. 99; Holmes, p. 265.
  54. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 192; Cantor, 513.
  55. ^ Cantor, 513; Holmes, pp. 266–7.
  56. ^ Grove, Jean M. (2003). The Little Ice Age. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415014492. 
  57. ^ Jones, p. 88.
  58. ^ Harvey, Barbara F. (1991). “Introduction: The 'Crisis' of the Early Fourteenth Century”. In Campbell, B.M.S.. Before the Black Death: Studies in The 'Crisis' of the Early Fourteenth Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 1–24. ISBN 0-7190-3208-3 
  59. ^ Jones, pp. 136–8;Cantor, p. 482.
  60. ^ Herlihy (1997), p. 17; Jones, p. 9.
  61. ^ Hollister, p. 347.
  62. ^ Duby, p. 270; Koenigsberger, p. 284; McKisack, p. 334.
  63. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 285.
  64. ^ Cantor, p. 484; Hollister, p. 332; Holmes, p. 303.
  65. ^ Cantor, p. 564; Hollister, pp. 332–3; Koenigsberger, p. 285.
  66. ^ Hollister, pp. 332–3; Jones, p. 15.
  67. ^ Chazan, p. 194.
  68. ^ Hollister, p. 330; Holmes, p. 255.
  69. ^ Brady et al., pp. 266–7; Chazan, pp. 166, 232; Koenigsberger, p. 251.
  70. ^ a b Klapisch-Zuber, p. 268.
  71. ^ Hollister, p. 323; Holmes, p. 304.
  72. ^ Jones, p. 164; Koenigsberger, p. 343.
  73. ^ a b Allmand (1998), p. 125
  74. ^ Jones, p. 350; McKisack, p. 39; Verbruggen, p. 111.
  75. ^ Allmand (1988), p. 59; Cantor, p. 467.
  76. ^ McKisack, p. 240, Verbruggen, pp. 171–2
  77. ^ Contamine, pp. 139–40; Jones, pp. 11–2.
  78. ^ Contamine, pp. 198–200.
  79. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 169; Contamine, pp. 200–7.
  80. ^ Cantor, p. 515.
  81. ^ Contamine, pp. 150–65; Holmes, p. 261; McKisack, p. 234.
  82. ^ Contamine, pp. 124, 135.
  83. ^ Contamine, pp. 165–72; Holmes, p. 300.
  84. ^ Cantor, p. 349; Holmes, pp. 319–20.
  85. ^ Hollister, p. 336.
  86. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03691a.htm
  87. ^ Cantor, p. 537; Jones, p. 209; McKisack, p. 251.
  88. ^ Cantor, p. 496.
  89. ^ Cantor, p. 497; Hollister, p. 338; Holmes, p. 309.
  90. ^ Hollister, p. 338; Koenigsberger, p. 326; Ozment, p. 158.
  91. ^ Cantor, p. 498; Ozment, p. 164.
  92. ^ Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8; MacCulloch, p. 34.
  93. ^ Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260; Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8.
  94. ^ 異端派の運動に関する本質と抑圧の有名な記述は、エマニュエル・ル・ロワ・ラデュリ Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294–1324. London: Scolar Press. (1978). ISBN 0859674037. である。
  95. ^ MacCulloch, p. 34–5.
  96. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 15; Cantor, pp. 499–500; Koenigsberger, p. 331.
  97. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 15–6; MacCulloch, p. 35.
  98. ^ Holmes, p. 312; MacCulloch, pp. 35–6; Ozment, p. 165.
  99. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 16; Cantor, p. 500.
  100. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 377; Koenigsberger, p. 332.
  101. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 377; Koenigsberger, p. 332.
  102. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 353; Hollister, p. 344; Koenigsberger, p. 332–3.
  103. ^ a b c Brady et al., p. xvii.
  104. ^ MacCulloch, p. 115.
  105. ^ MacCulloch, pp. 70, 117.
  106. ^ MacCulloch, p. 127; Ozment, p. 245.
  107. ^ MacCulloch, p. 128.
  108. ^ Ozment, p. 246.
  109. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 16–7; Cantor, pp. 500–1.
  110. ^ MacCulloch, p. 107; Ozment, p. 397.
  111. ^ MacCulloch, p. 266; Ozment, pp. 259–60.
  112. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 159–60; Pounds, pp. 467–8.
  113. ^ Hollister, pp. 334–5.
  114. ^ Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Koenigsberger, p. 295; Pounds, p. 361.
  115. ^ Cipolla (1976), p. 283; Koenigsberger, p. 297; Pounds, pp. 378–81.
  116. ^ Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Cipolla (1994), p. 203, 234; Pounds, pp. 387–8.
  117. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, p. 407.
  118. ^ Cipolla (1976), pp. 318–29; Cipolla (1994), pp. 160–4; Holmes, p. 235; Jones, pp. 176–81; Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, pp. 407–27.
  119. ^ Jones, p. 121; Pearl, pp. 299–300; Koenigsberger, pp. 286, 291.
  120. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 150–3; Holmes, p. 304; Koenigsberger, p. 299; McKisack, p. 160.
  121. ^ Pounds, p. 483.
  122. ^ Cipolla, C.M. (1964). “Economic depression of the Renaissance?”. Economic History Review xvi: 519–24. 
  123. ^ Pounds, pp. 484–5.
  124. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 243–54; Cantor, p. 594; Nicholas, p. 156.
  125. ^ Jones, p. 42; Koenigsberger, p. 242.
  126. ^ Hans Thijssen (2003年). “Condemnation of 1277”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008年4月21日閲覧。
  127. ^ Grant, p. 142; Nicholas, p. 134.
  128. ^ Grant, pp. 100–3, 149, 164–5.
  129. ^ Grant, pp. 95–7.
  130. ^ Grant, pp. 112–3.
  131. ^ Jones, pp. 11–2; Koenigsberger, pp. 297–8; Nicholas, p. 165.
  132. ^ Grant, p. 160; Koenigsberger, p. 297.
  133. ^ Cantor, p. 433; Koenigsberger, p. 363.
  134. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 155; Brotton, p. 27.
  135. ^ Burke, p. 24; Koenigsberger, p. 363; Nicholas, p. 161.
  136. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 253; Cantor, p. 556.
  137. ^ Cantor, p. 554; Nichols, pp. 159–60.
  138. ^ Brotton, p. 67; Burke, p. 69.
  139. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 269; Koenigsberger, p. 376.
  140. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 302; Cantor, p. 539.
  141. ^ Burke, p. 250; Nicholas, p. 161.
  142. ^ Allmand (1998), pp. 300–1, Hollister, p. 375.
  143. ^ Allmand (1998), p. 305; Cantor, p. 371.
  144. ^ Jones, p. 8.
  145. ^ Cantor, p. 346.
  146. ^ Curtius, p. 387; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
  147. ^ Cantor, p. 546; Curtius, pp. 351, 378.
  148. ^ Curtius, p. 396; Koenigsberger, p. 368; Jones, p. 258.
  149. ^ Curtius, p. 26; Jones, p. 258; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
  150. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 369.
  151. ^ Jones, p. 264.
  152. ^ Curtius, p. 35; Jones. p. 264.
  153. ^ Jones, p. 9.
  154. ^ Allmand, p. 319; Grant, p. 14; Koenigsberger, p. 382.
  155. ^ Allmand, p. 322; Wilson, p. 229.
  156. ^ Wilson, pp. 229, 289–90, 327.
  157. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 381; Wilson, p. 329.
  158. ^ Koenigsberger, p. 383; Wilson, p. 329.
  159. ^ Wilson, pp. 357–8, 361–2.
  160. ^ Brady et al., p. xiv; Cantor, p. 529.
  161. ^ Burckhardt, Jacob (1860). The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. p. 121. ISBN 0060904607. 
  162. ^ Haskins, Charles Homer (1927). The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0198219342. 
  163. ^ "Les periodes de l'historie du capitalism", Academie Royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres, 1914.
  164. ^ Huizinga, Johan (1924). The Waning of the Middle Ages: A Study of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in France and the Netherlands in the XIVth and XVth Centuries. London: E. Arnold. ISBN 0312855400. 
  165. ^ a b Allmand, p. 299; Cantor, p. 530.
  166. ^ Le Goff, p. 154. See e.g. Najemy, John M. (2004). Italy in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300–1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198700407. 




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