hungerとは?

Hunger

名前 フンガー

飢え

(hunger から転送)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2019/08/18 00:21 UTC 版)

飢え(うえ)とは、肉体的空腹感を頻繁に経験する、またはそのことを恐れて生活している人(あるいはその他の生物)の社会的状況を表現する際に使用される、もっとも一般的な用語である。


  1. ^ a b c FAO; IFAD; UNICEF; WFP; WHO (2019-07) (英語). State of food security and nutrition in the world 2019(2019年 世界の食糧安全保障と栄養の状況). pp. 6,8-9. ISBN 978-92-5-131570-5. https://www.unicef.org/reports/state-of-food-security-and-nutrition-2019 2019年8月17日閲覧。. 
  2. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 2. “FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry [actually, malnourished] people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period.”.
  3. ^ “世界人口推計2019年版:要旨 10の主要な調査結果(日本語訳)” (プレスリリース), 国際連合広報センター, (2019年7月2日), https://www.unic.or.jp/news_press/features_backgrounders/33798/ 2019年8月18日閲覧。 
  4. ^ Jean Ziegler. “Promotion And Protection Of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, Including The Right To Development: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Jean Ziegler”. Human Rights Council of the United Nations, January10, 2008.“According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the world already produces enough food to feed every child, woman and man and could feed 12 billion people, or double the current world population.”
  5. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural and Development Economics Division. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2006 : Eradicating world hunger – taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, p. 8. “Because of population growth, the very small decrease in the number of hungry people has nevertheless resulted in a reduction in the proportion of undernourished people in the developing countries by 3 percentage points – from 20 percent in 1990–92 to 17 percent in 2001–03. (…) the prevalence of undernourishment declined by 9 percent (from 37 percent to 28 percent) between 1969–71 and 1979–81 and by a further 8 percentage points (to 20 percent) between 1979–81 and 1990–92.”.
  6. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 6. “Good progress in reducing the share of hungry people in the developing world had been achieved – down from almost 20 percent in 1990–92 to less than 18 percent in 1995–97 and just above 16 percent in 2003–05. The estimates show that rising food prices have thrown that progress into reverse, with the proportion of undernourished people worldwide moving back towards 17 percent.”.
  7. ^ Jean Ziegler. “The Right to Food: Report by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Mr. Jean Ziegler, Submitted in Accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2000/10”. United Nations, February 7, 2001, p. 5. “On average, 62 million people die each year, of whom probably 36 million (58 per cent) directly or indirectly as a result of nutritional deficiencies, infections, epidemics or diseases which attack the body when its resistance and immunity have been weakened by undernourishment and hunger.”.
  8. ^ Commission on Human Rights. “The right to food : Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/25”. Office Of The High Commissioner For Human Rights, United Nations, April 22, 2002, p. 2. “every year 36 million people die, directly or indirectly, as a result of hunger and nutritional deficiencies, most of them women and children, particularly in developing countries, in a world that already produces enough food to feed the whole global population”.
  9. ^ United Nations Information Service. “Independent Expert On Effects Of Structural Adjustment, Special Rapporteur On Right To Food Present Reports: Commission Continues General Debate On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights”. United Nations, March 29, 2004, p. 6. “Around 36 million people died from hunger directly or indirectly every year.”.
  10. ^ Maria Caspani (2013年6月6日). “Malnutrition kills more than 3 million children every year - study (栄養失調により毎年300万人以上の子供を死へ追いやっている-研究)” (英語). Thomson Reuters Foundation News. http://news.trust.org//item/20130606171117-f1bwl 2019年8月18日閲覧。 
  11. ^ “栄養失調で死ぬ幼児、世界で年間300万人以上 国連” (日本語). AFP通信. (2014年6月13日). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3017602 2019年8月18日閲覧。 
  12. ^ Ziliak, Gundersen and Haist. (2007) The Causes, Consequences and Future of Senior Hunger in America, University of Kentucky Center for Poverty and Research, Lexington, KY. (88pages. 2MB.)
  13. ^ Excerpt from "The Causes, Consequences and Future of Senior Hunger in America", Executive Summary, pp.i-ii
  14. ^ “NYの子ども、5人に1人は十分な食事とれず NPO報告”. AFPBB News. (2013年11月27日). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3004031 2013年11月28日閲覧。 


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