地球球体説とは?

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地球球体説

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2018/08/20 14:09 UTC 版)

地球球体説(ちきゅうきゅうたいせつ、: Spherical Earth)とは、大地)は球体である、とする説、考え方のことである。大地球体説(だいちきゅうたいせつ)とも。


  1. ^ 英語でEarthは「地」「大地」「土」といった意味。ラテン語のterraに相当。とりあえず形状は明示していない用語・概念。日本語で「地球」と言ってしまうとすでに「球」という概念が入ってしまっており、結論を先取りしてしまっている。英語でglobeと言うとかなり球体を意識した「地」、地球、となる。
  1. ^ Dicks, D.R. (1970). Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. pp. 72–198. ISBN 978-0-8014-0561-7. 
  2. ^ a b Continuation into Roman and medieval thought: Reinhard Krüger: "Materialien und Dokumente zur mittelalterlichen Erdkugeltheorie von der Spätantike bis zur Kolumbusfahrt (1492)"
  3. ^ a b Direct adoption of the Greek concept by Islam: Ragep, F. Jamil: "Astronomy", in: Krämer, Gudrun (ed.) et al.: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Brill 2010, without page numbers
  4. ^ a b Direct adoption by India: D. Pingree: "History of Mathematical Astronomy in India", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 15 (1978), pp. 533−633 (554f.); Glick, Thomas F., Livesey, Steven John, Wallis, Faith (eds.): "Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, New York 2005, ISBN 0-415-96930-1, p. 463
  5. ^ a b Adoption by China via European science: Jean-Claude Martzloff, “Space and Time in Chinese Texts of Astronomy and of Mathematical Astronomy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries”, Chinese Science 11 (1993-94): 66–92 (69) and Christopher Cullen, "A Chinese Eratosthenes of the Flat Earth: A Study of a Fragment of Cosmology in Huai Nan tzu 淮 南 子", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (1976), pp. 106–127 (107)
  6. ^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1906). Magellan's Voyage around the World. Arthur A. Clark. [1]
  7. ^ Otto E. Neugebauer (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Birkhäuser. p. 577. ISBN 3-540-06995-X 
  8. ^ Menon, CPS. Early Astronomy and Cosmology. Whitegishm MT, USA: Kessinger Publishing. p. 68. [2]
  9. ^ See figure of the Earth and Earth radius for details. Recent measurements from satellites suggest that the Earth is, in fact, slightly pear-shaped. Hugh Thurston, Early Astronomy, (New York: Springer-Verlag), p. 119. ISBN 0-387-94107-X.
  10. ^ a b c James Evans, (1998), The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, page 47, Oxford University Press
  11. ^ Otto E. Neugebauer (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Birkhäuser. pp. 575–6. ISBN 3-540-06995-X 
  12. ^ a b Dicks, D.R. (1970). Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8014-0561-7. 
  13. ^ a b Charles H. Kahn, (2001), Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: a brief history, page 53. Hackett
  14. ^
  15. ^ Plato. Phaedo. p. 110b. 
  16. ^ Plato. Timaeus. p. 33. 
    『プラトン全集12 ティマイオス クリティアス』種山恭子・田之頭安彦訳、岩波書店、1975年9月13日、p38
  17. ^ a b アリストテレス『天について』池田康男訳、京都大学学術出版会、1997年10月25日、ISBN:4-87698-105-1、pp. 138–139.
  18. ^ Van Helden, Albert (1985). Measuring the Universe: Cosmic Dimensions from Aristarchus to Halley. University of Chicago Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-226-84882-5. 
  19. ^ JSC NES School Measures Up”. NASA (2006年4月11日). 2010年10月7日閲覧。
  20. ^ The Round Earth”. NASA (2004年12月12日). 2008年1月24日閲覧。
  21. ^ a b c Reinhard Krüger: "Materialien und Dokumente zur mittelalterlichen Erdkugeltheorie von der Spätantike bis zur Kolumbusfahrt (1492)"
  22. ^ Hugh Thurston, Early Astronomy, (New York: Springer-Verlag), p. 118. ISBN 0-387-94107-X.
  23. ^ Odyssey, Bk. 5 393: "As he rose on the swell he looked eagerly ahead, and could see land quite near." Samuel Butler's translation is available online.
  24. ^ Strabo (1960) [1917]. The Geography of Strabo, in Eight Volumes. Loeb Classical Library edition, translated by Horace Leonard Jones, A.M., Ph.D.. London: William Heinemann. , Vol.I Bk. I para. 20, pp. 41, 43. An earlier edition is available online.
  25. ^ Ptolemy. Almagest. pp. I.4.  as quoted in Grant, Edward (1974). A Source Book in Medieval Science. Harvard University Press. pp. 63–4. 
  26. ^ Klaus Anselm Vogel, "Sphaera terrae - das mittelalterliche Bild der Erde und die kosmographische Revolution," PhD dissertation Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 1995, p. 19.
  27. ^ a b D. Pingree: "History of Mathematical Astronomy in India", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 15 (1978), pp. 533−633 (533, 554f.)
  28. ^ Glick, Thomas F., Livesey, Steven John, Wallis, Faith (eds.): "Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, New York 2005, ISBN 0-415-96930-1, p. 463
  29. ^ Aryabhata_I biography. http://www.gongol.com/research/math/aryabhatiya The Aryabhatiya: Foundations of Indian Mathematics
  30. ^ Rudolf Simek, Altnordische Kosmographie, Berlin, 1990, p. 102.
  31. ^ Isidore, Etymologiae, XIV.ii.1 [3]; Wesley M. Stevens, "The Figure of the Earth in Isidore's De natura rerum", Isis, 71(1980): 268-277.
  32. ^ Referring to the five circles in De Natura Rerum X 5: "The explanation of the passage and of the figure which illustrates it seems to be that Isidore accepted the terminology of the spherical earth from Hyginus without taking the time to understand it—if indeed he had the ability to do so—and applied it without compunction to the flat earth." Ernest Brehaut (1912). Encyclopedist of the Flat Earth. p. 30.  J. Fontaine refers to this passage as a "scientific absurdity".Isidore of Seville (1960). J. Fontaine. ed. Traité de la Nature. p. 16. 
  33. ^ Isidore, Etymologiae, XIV.v.17 [4].
  34. ^ Isidore, Etymologiae, IX.ii.133 [5].
  35. ^ Faith Wallis, trans., Bede: The Reckoning of Time, (Liverpool: Liverpool Univ. Pr., 2004), pp. lxxxv-lxxxix.
  36. ^ Ælfric of Eynsham, On the Seasons of the Year, Peter Baker, trans
  37. ^ Russell, Jeffrey B. 1991. Inventing the Flat Earth. New York: Praeger Publishers. p. 87.
  38. ^ Hewson, Robert H. "Science in Seventh-Century Armenia: Ananias of Sirak, Isis, Vol. 59, No. 1, (Spring, 1968), pp. 32–45
  39. ^ エミール・マール『ゴシックの図像学 上』田中仁彦・池田健二・磯見辰典・細田直孝訳、国書刊行会、ISBN:4-336-03893-7、p140
  40. ^ Olaf Pedersen, "In Quest of Sacrobosco", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 16(1985): 175-221
  41. ^ a b Ragep, F. Jamil: "Astronomy", in: Krämer, Gudrun (ed.) et al.: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Brill 2010, without page numbers
  42. ^ Muhammad Hamidullah. L'Islam et son impulsion scientifique originelle, Tiers-Monde, 1982, vol. 23, n° 92, p. 789.
  43. ^ David A. King, Astronomy in the Service of Islam, (Aldershot (U.K.): Variorum), 1993.
  44. ^ Gharā'ib al-funūn wa-mulah al-`uyūn (The Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes), 2.1 "On the mensuration of the Earth and its division into seven climes, as related by Ptolemy and others," (ff. 22b-23a)[3]
  45. ^ Edward S. Kennedy, Mathematical Geography, pp=187–8, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 185–201)
  46. ^ Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Columbus and the conquest of the impossible, pp. 20–1, Phoenix Press, 1974.
  47. ^ James S. Aber (2003). Alberuni calculated the Earth's circumference at a small town of Pind Dadan Khan, District Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan.Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Emporia State University.
  48. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (1992), Avicenna, p. 31, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-01929-X.
  49. ^ Behnaz Savizi (2007). “Applicable Problems in History of Mathematics: Practical Examples for the Classroom”. Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications (Oxford University Press) 26 (1): 45–50. doi:10.1093/teamat/hrl009. http://people.exeter.ac.uk/PErnest/pome19/Savizi%20-%20Applicable%20Problems.doc 2010年2月21日閲覧。. 
  50. ^ Mercier, Raymond P. (1992). “Geodesy”. In J. B. Harley, David Woodward (eds.). The History of Cartography: Vol. 2.1, Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian societies. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. pp. 182–184. ISBN 978-0-226-31635-2. 
  51. ^ Beatrice Lumpkin (1997). Geometry Activities from Many Cultures. Walch Publishing. pp. 60 & 112–3. ISBN 0-8251-3285-1  [4]
  52. ^ Jim Al-Khalili, The Empire of Reason 2/6 (Science and Islam - Episode 2 of 3) - YouTube, BBC
  53. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Al-Biruni”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Biruni.html .
  54. ^ Nowell, Charles E. ed. (1962). Magellan's Voyage around the World: Three Contemporary Accounts. Evanston: NU Press.
  55. ^ Joseph Jacobs(2006), "The story of geographical discovery" p.90
  56. ^ Jean-Claude Martzloff, "Space and Time in Chinese Texts of Astronomy and of Mathematical Astronomy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries", Chinese Science 11 (1993-94): 66-92 (69) (PDF)”. 2011年1月20日閲覧。[リンク切れ]
  57. ^ Christopher Cullen, “Joseph Needham on Chinese Astronomy”, Past and Present, No. 87. (May, 1980), pp. 39–53 (42 & 49)
  58. ^ Christopher Cullen, "A Chinese Eratosthenes of the Flat Earth: A Study of a Fragment of Cosmology in Huai Nan tzu 淮 南 子", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (1976), pp. 106–127 (107-109)


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