公正世界仮説とは? わかりやすく解説

公正世界仮説

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2022/06/11 06:25 UTC 版)

公正世界仮説(こうせいせかいかせつ、just-world hypothesis)または公正世界誤謬(こうせいせかいごびゅう、just-world fallacy)とは、人間の行いに対して公正な結果が返ってくるものである、と考える認知バイアス、もしくは思い込みである。また、この世界は公正世界である、という信念を公正世界信念(belief in a just world)という。公正世界仮説は社会心理学者によって広く研究されてきており、メルビン・J・ラーナーが1960年代初頭に行った研究が嚆矢とされる[1]。以来、様々な状況下や文化圏における、公正世界仮説に基づく行動予測の検証が行われ、それによって公正世界信念の理論的な理解の明確化と拡張が行なわれてきた[2]


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  4. ^ Callan, Mitchell J.; Harvey, Annelie J.; Sutton, Robbie M. (2014-03). “Rejecting victims of misfortune reduces delay discounting”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 51: 41-44. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2013.11.002. ISSN 0022-1031. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2013.11.002. 
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  7. ^ Dalbert, Claudia. (2001). The Justice Motive as a Personal Resource : Dealing with Challenges and Critical Life Events. Springer US. ISBN 978-1-4757-3383-9. OCLC 913697991. http://worldcat.org/oclc/913697991 
  8. ^ Hafer, Carolyn L.; Bègue, Laurent (2005). “Experimental Research on Just-World Theory: Problems, Developments, and Future Challenges.”. Psychological Bulletin 131 (1): 128-167. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.128. ISSN 1939-1455. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.128. 
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  11. ^ Nudelman, Gabriel (2013-06). “The Belief in a Just World and Personality: A Meta-analysis” (英語). Social Justice Research 26 (2): 105-119. doi:10.1007/s11211-013-0178-y. ISSN 0885-7466. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11211-013-0178-y. 
  12. ^ a b c Montada, L. & Lerner, M.J. (1998). Preface, in Leo Montada & M.J. Lerner (Eds.). Responses to Victimizations and Belief in a Just World (pp. vii-viii). Plenum Press: New York.
  13. ^ a b Lerner, M. J., & Simmons, C. H. (1966). Observer’s reaction to the “innocent victim”: Compassion or rejection? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(2), 203-210.
  14. ^ a b c Lerner (1980). The Belief in a Just World: A Fundamental Delusion. Plenum: New York.
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  24. ^ Staub, Ervin (1978). Positive Social Behavior and Morality: Social and Personal Influences, Volume 1. Academic Press Inc.. pp. 169-170. ISBN 0-12-663101-8. https://books.google.fi/books?id=GiOLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA169&lpg=PA169&dq=reduce+discomfort+suffering+erwin+just+world&source=bl&ots=34hjcjcsgq&sig=XZ35USRZBg3Tu4rKLcEZS2WoAqI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=n8QBVeauE-vXygPevoHIBQ&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=reduce%20discomfort%20suffering%20erwin%20just%20world&f=false 2015年3月12日閲覧。 
  25. ^ Hafer, Carolyn (2005). “Belief in a Just World and Commitment to Long-Term Deserved Outcomes”. Social Justice Research 18 (4): 429-444. doi:10.1007/s11211-005-8569-3. http://www.lps.univ-savoie.fr/uploads/PDF/576.pdf 2015年3月12日閲覧。. 
  26. ^ Reichle, B., Schneider, A., & Montada, L. (1998). How do observers of victimization preserve their belief in a just world cognitively or actionally? In L. Montada & M. J. Lerner (Eds.), Responses to victimization and belief in a just world (pp. 55-86). New York: Plenum.
  27. ^ Rubin, Z. & Peplau, A. (1973). Belief in a just world and reactions to another's lot: A study of participants in the national draft lottery. Journal of Social Issues, 29, 73-93.
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  29. ^ Janoff-Bulman, R., Timko, C., & Carli, L. L. (1985). Cognitive biases in blaming the victim. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21(2), 161-177.
  30. ^ Carli, L. L. (1999). Cognitive Reconstruction, Hindsight, and Reactions to Victims and Perpetrators. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(8), 966-979.
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  32. ^ Fox, C. L., Elder, T., Gater, J., & Johnson, E. (2010). The association between adolescents’ beliefs in a just world and their attitudes to victims of bullying. The British journal of educational psychology, 80(Pt 2), 183-98.
  33. ^ Correia, I., & Dalbert, C. (2008). School Bullying. European Psychologist, 13(4), 248254.
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  35. ^ Gruman, J. C., & Sloan, R. P. (1983). Disease as Justice: Perceptions of the Victims of Physical Illness. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 4(1), 39-46.
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  41. ^ Maes, J. (1998). Immanent justice and ultimate justice: two ways of believing in justice. In L. Montada, & M. Lerner (Eds.), Responses to victimization and belief in a just world (pp. 9-40). New York: Plenum Press.
  42. ^ Mohiyeddini, C., & Montada, L. (1998). BJW and self-efficacy in coping with observed victimization. In L. Montada, & M. Lerner (Eds.), Responses to victimizations and belief in the just world (pp. 43-53). New York: Plenum.
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  52. ^ Dolinski, Dariusz (1996). “The belief in an unjust world: An egotistic delusion”. Social Justice Research 9 (3): 213-221. doi:10.1007/BF02197248. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02197248 2015年3月12日閲覧。. 
  53. ^ Dalbert, C. (2001). The justice motive as a personal resource: dealing with challenges and critical life events. New York: Plenum.
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  58. ^ a b 自分勝手や残酷なことして「バチがあたる」…信じる人76%、半世紀前より割合高く : 世論調査 : 選挙・世論調査” (日本語). 読売新聞オンライン (2020年5月28日). 2020年5月30日閲覧。



公正世界仮説

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2022/06/08 17:16 UTC 版)

被害者側が悪いこと行ったから、罰が当たったという推測によって、自分秩序のある世界生きている安全な存在であるという信念維持誤解自己暗示させる行為である(被害者非難行っている時点で誤解であることが理解できていないのである)。

※この「公正世界仮説」の解説は、「被害者非難」の解説の一部です。» 「被害者非難」の概要を見る

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