有性とは? わかりやすく解説

う‐しょう〔‐シヤウ〕【有性】

読み方:うしょう

仏語

あること。存在すること。

悟りを開く素質のあるもの。仏性持っているもの。⇔無性


ゆう‐せい〔イウ‐〕【有性】

読み方:ゆうせい

生物で、雌雄区別があること。⇔無性


有性

英訳・(英)同義/類義語:sexuality

生物が、性に分化した状態。

性 (生物学)

(有性 から転送)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2024/04/07 07:14 UTC 版)

生物学において、(せい、sex)とは、有性生殖を行う生物が、配偶子を生むか、性配偶子を生むかを決定する形質である[1][2][3]。有性生殖では、雄性配偶子と雌性配偶子が融合して接合子が形成され、この接合子が両親の形質を受け継ぐ子孫英語版へと成長する。慣習により、小さくて移動性の高い配偶子(精子)を生成する生物は雄(おす、: male)と呼ばれ、大きくて移動性の低い配偶子(卵子、しばしば卵細胞と呼ばれる)を生成する生物は雌(めす、: female)と呼ばれる[4]。両方の種類の配偶子を作る生物を雌雄同体という[3][5]


  1. ^ Stevenson A, Waite M (2011). Concise Oxford English Dictionary: Book & CD-ROM Set. OUP Oxford. p. 1302. ISBN 978-0-19-960110-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=4XycAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA1320 2018年3月23日閲覧. "Sex: Either of the two main categories (male and female) into which humans and most other living things are divided on the basis of their reproductive functions. The fact of belonging to one of these categories. The group of all members of either sex." 
  2. ^ Mills, Alex (1 January 2018) (英語). Biology of Sex. University of Toronto Press. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-1-4875-9337-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=bLhcDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA43 2023年10月3日閲覧。 
  3. ^ a b Purves WK, Sadava DE, Orians GH, Heller HC (2000). Life: The Science of Biology. Macmillan. p. 736. ISBN 978-0-7167-3873-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=kS-h84pMJw4C&pg=PA736 2018年3月23日閲覧. "A single body can function as both male and female. Sexual reproduction requires both male and female haploid gametes. In most species, these gametes are produced by individuals that are either male or female. Species that have male and female members are called dioecious (from the Greek for 'two houses'). In some species, a single individual may possess both female and male reproductive systems. Such species are called monoecious ("one house") or hermaphroditic." 
  4. ^ Royle NJ, Smiseth PT, Kölliker M (2012) (英語). The Evolution of Parental Care. Oxford University Press. pp. 103. ISBN 978-0-19-969257-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=K-EUDAAAQBAJ&pg=PR5&q=Sex%2Bdifferences%2Bin%2Bparental%2Bcare. "The answer is that there is an agreement by convention: individuals producing the smaller of the two gamete types – sperm or pollen – are males, and those producing larger gametes – eggs or ovules – are females." 
  5. ^ Avise JC (2011) (英語). Hermaphroditism: A Primer on the Biology, Ecology, and Evolution of Dual Sexuality. Columbia University Press. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-0-231-52715-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=jqiR8C0lEckC&q=Hermaphrodite 2020年9月18日閲覧。 
  6. ^ a b c d Hake L, O'Connor C. “Genetic Mechanisms of Sex Determination | Learn Science at Scitable” (英語). www.nature.com. 2017年8月19日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2021年4月13日閲覧。
  7. ^ Moore D, Robson JD, Trinci AP (2020). 21st Century guidebook to fungi (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 211–228. ISBN 978-1-108-74568-0 
  8. ^ Kumar R, Meena M, Swapnil P (2019). "Anisogamy". In Vonk J, Shackelford T (eds.). Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_340-1. ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6. Anisogamy can be defined as a mode of sexual reproduction in which fusing gametes, formed by participating parents, are dissimilar in size.
  9. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V. 20. Meiosis", U.S. NIH, V. 20. Meiosis Archived 25 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), U.S. National Institutes of Health, "V. 20. The Benefits of Sex Archived 22 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.".
  11. ^ Gilbert (2000), "1.2. Multicellularity: Evolution of Differentiation". 1.2.Mul Archived 8 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine., NIH.
  12. ^ Allaby M (2012) (英語). A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. OUP Oxford. p. 350. ISBN 978-0-19-960057-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=wzZGQOmcjqAC&pg=PA350&q=a%2520dictionary%2520of%2520plant%2520sciences%2520oogamy 
  13. ^ Gee, Henry (1999年11月22日). “Size and the single sex cell”. Nature. オリジナルの2017年10月11日時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20171011062235/http://www.nature.com/news/1999/991122/full/news991125-4.html 2018年6月4日閲覧。 
  14. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "3. Mendelian genetics in eukaryotic life cycles", U.S. NIH, 3. Mendelian/eukaryotic Archived 2 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine..
  15. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V.20. Sperm", U.S. NIH, V.20. Sperm Archived 29 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine..
  16. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V.20. Eggs", U.S. NIH, V.20. Eggs Archived 29 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine..
  17. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V.20. Fertilization", U.S. NIH, V.20. Fertilization Archived 19 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine..
  18. ^ Ritchison, G.. “Avian Reproduction”. Eastern Kentucky University. 2008年4月12日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2008年4月3日閲覧。
  19. ^ Gilbert SF (2000). “Gamete Production in Angiosperms”. Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-87893-243-6. オリジナルの21 April 2021時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10129/ 2021年4月17日閲覧。 
  20. ^ Dusenbery DB (2009) (英語). Living at Micro Scale: The Unexpected Physics of Being Small. Harvard University Press. pp. 308–326. ISBN 978-0-674-03116-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=QCrimQJu1RAC&pg=PA308&q=living%2Bat%2Bmicro%2Bscale%2Breproduction 
  21. ^ Plants, sex & Darwin | University of Oxford” (英語). www.ox.ac.uk. 2024年1月10日閲覧。
  22. ^ a b Judd, Walter S.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Stevens, Peter F.; Donoghue, Michael J. (2002). Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach (2 ed.). Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates Inc.. ISBN 0-87893-403-0 
  23. ^ Nick Lane (2005). Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-19-280481-5. https://archive.org/details/powersexsuicidem0000lane 
  24. ^ Watkinson SC, Boddy L, Money N (2015). The Fungi. Elsevier Science. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-12-382035-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=x8qcBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA115 2018年2月18日閲覧。 
  25. ^ Matthew P. Scott; Paul Matsudaira; Harvey Lodish; James Darnell; Lawrence Zipursky; Chris A. Kaiser; Arnold Berk; Monty Krieger (2000). Molecular Cell Biology (Fourth ed.). WH Freeman and Co. ISBN 978-0-7167-4366-8. https://archive.org/details/molecularcellbio00harv 14.1. Cell-Type Specification and Mating-Type Conversion in Yeast Archived 1 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ a b Leonard, J. L. (2013-08-22). “Williams' Paradox and the Role of Phenotypic Plasticity in Sexual Systems”. Integrative and Comparative Biology 53 (4): 671–688. doi:10.1093/icb/ict088. ISSN 1540-7063. PMID 23970358. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f Bachtrog D, Mank JE, Peichel CL, Kirkpatrick M, Otto SP, Ashman TL, Hahn MW, Kitano J, Mayrose I, Ming R, Perrin N, Ross L, Valenzuela N, Vamosi JC (July 2014). “Sex determination: why so many ways of doing it?”. PLOS Biology 12 (7): e1001899. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899. PMC 4077654. PMID 24983465. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4077654/. 
  28. ^ Kuwamura T, Sunobe T, Sakai Y, Kadota T, Sawada K (2020-07-01). “Hermaphroditism in fishes: an annotated list of species, phylogeny, and mating system” (英語). Ichthyological Research 67 (3): 341–360. Bibcode2020IchtR..67..341K. doi:10.1007/s10228-020-00754-6. ISSN 1616-3915. 
  29. ^ a b Kliman, Richard (2016). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. 2. Academic Press. pp. 212–224. ISBN 978-0-12-800426-5. オリジナルの6 May 2021時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20210506205920/https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Evolutionary_Biology/_r4OCAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0&kptab=overview 2021年4月14日閲覧。 
  30. ^ Sabath N, Goldberg EE, Glick L, Einhorn M, Ashman TL, Ming R, Otto SP, Vamosi JC, Mayrose I (February 2016). “Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms”. The New Phytologist 209 (3): 1290–300. doi:10.1111/nph.13696. PMID 26467174. 
  31. ^ Beentje H (2016). The Kew plant glossary (2 ed.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84246-604-9 
  32. ^ Leite Montalvão, Ana Paula; Kersten, Birgit; Fladung, Matthias; Müller, Niels Andreas (2021). “The Diversity and Dynamics of Sex Determination in Dioecious Plants” (English). Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 580488. doi:10.3389/fpls.2020.580488. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 7843427. PMID 33519840. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843427/. 
  33. ^ Renner, Susanne S. (2014). “The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an updated online database”. American Journal of Botany 101 (10): 1588–1596. doi:10.3732/ajb.1400196. PMID 25326608. 
  34. ^ Walas Ł, Mandryk W, Thomas PA, Tyrała-Wierucka Ż, Iszkuło G (2018). “Sexual systems in gymnosperms: A review”. Basic and Applied Ecology 31: 1–9. Bibcode2018BApEc..31....1W. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2018.05.009. オリジナルの27 January 2022時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20220127084144/https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/4961/1/29052018_1-s2.0-S1439179117304498-main.pdf 2021年6月7日閲覧。. 
  35. ^ Kumar, Awasthi & Ashok (英語). Textbook of Algae. Vikas Publishing House. p. 363. ISBN 978-93-259-9022-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=r0h1DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA363&q=isogamy%2Bgenerally%2Baccepted 
  36. ^ a b Lehtonen J, Kokko H, Parker GA (October 2016). “What do isogamous organisms teach us about sex and the two sexes?”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 371 (1706). doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0532. PMC 5031617. PMID 27619696. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5031617/. 
  37. ^ Togashi, Tatsuya; Bartelt, John L.; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Cox, Paul Alan (2012-08-21). “Evolutionary trajectories explain the diversified evolution of isogamy and anisogamy in marine green algae”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (34): 13692–13697. Bibcode2012PNAS..10913692T. doi:10.1073/pnas.1203495109. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3427103. PMID 22869736. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3427103/. 
  38. ^ Székely, Tamás; Fairbairn, Daphne J.; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U. (2007) (英語). Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism. OUP Oxford. pp. 167–169, 176, 185. ISBN 978-0-19-920878-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=IDoTDAAAQBAJ&q=anisogamy%2Blead%2Bto%2Bsex%2Bdifferences 
  39. ^ Pitnick SS, Hosken DJ, Birkhead TR (2008) (英語). Sperm Biology: An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-08-091987-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=kctYNbO1fE0C&pg=PA44&q=isogamy%2Bin%2Bmulticellular%2Borganisms 
  40. ^ Sawada, Hitoshi; Inoue, Naokazu; Iwano, Megumi, eds (2014) (English). Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants. Springer Nature. pp. 215–216. ISBN 978-4-431-54589-7. https://directory.doabooks.org/handle/20.500.12854/29412 
  41. ^ Hörandl, Elvira; Hadacek, Franz (2020-08-15). “Oxygen, life forms, and the evolution of sexes in multicellular eukaryotes” (英語). Heredity 125 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1038/s41437-020-0317-9. ISSN 1365-2540. PMC 7413252. PMID 32415185. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413252/. 
  42. ^ Armored Fish Pioneered Sex As You Know It” (英語). Animals (2014年10月19日). 2023年7月10日閲覧。
  43. ^ 43.2A: External and Internal Fertilization” (英語). Biology LibreTexts (2018年7月17日). 2020年11月9日閲覧。
  44. ^ Tanurdzic M, Banks JA (2004). “Sex-determining mechanisms in land plants”. The Plant Cell 16 Suppl (Suppl): S61–S71. doi:10.1105/tpc.016667. PMC 2643385. PMID 15084718. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2643385/. 
  45. ^ Warner DA, Shine R (January 2008). “The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination in a reptile”. Nature 451 (7178): 566–568. Bibcode2008Natur.451..566W. doi:10.1038/nature06519. PMID 18204437. 
  46. ^ Beukeboom LW, Perrin N (2014) (英語). The Evolution of Sex Determination. Oxford University Press. pp. 16. ISBN 978-0-19-965714-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=7yrnAwAAQBAJ&q=the%2Bevolution%2Bof%2Bsex%2Bdetermination 
  47. ^ Wallis MC, Waters PD, Graves JA (October 2008). “Sex determination in mammals – before and after the evolution of SRY”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65 (20): 3182–95. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-8109-z. PMID 18581056. 
  48. ^ Pierce, Benjamin A. (2012). Genetics: a conceptual approach (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-1-4292-3250-0. OCLC 703739906 
  49. ^ Kaiser VB, Bachtrog D (2010). “Evolution of sex chromosomes in insects”. Annual Review of Genetics 44: 91–112. doi:10.1146/annurev-genet-102209-163600. PMC 4105922. PMID 21047257. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105922/. 
  50. ^ Dellaporta SL, Calderon-Urrea A (October 1993). “Sex determination in flowering plants”. The Plant Cell 5 (10): 1241–1251. doi:10.1105/tpc.5.10.1241. JSTOR 3869777. PMC 160357. PMID 8281039. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC160357/. 
  51. ^ Fusco G, Minelli A (2019). The Biology of Reproduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 306–308. ISBN 978-1-108-49985-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=AKGsDwAAQBAJ 
  52. ^ Smith CA, Katz M, Sinclair AH (February 2003). “DMRT1 is upregulated in the gonads during female-to-male sex reversal in ZW chicken embryos”. Biology of Reproduction 68 (2): 560–570. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.102.007294. PMID 12533420. 
  53. ^ Majerus ME (2003) (英語). Sex Wars: Genes, Bacteria, and Biased Sex Ratios. Princeton University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-691-00981-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=vDHOYPQ2mmYC&q=ZW%2Bsex%2Bdetermination 
  54. ^ Bull JJ (1983). Evolution of sex determining mechanisms. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Advanced Book Program. p. 17. ISBN 0-8053-0400-2 
  55. ^ Thiriot-Quiévreux C (2003). “Advances in chromosomal studies of gastropod molluscs.”. Journal of Molluscan Studies 69 (3): 187–202. doi:10.1093/mollus/69.3.187. 
  56. ^ Yoshimura A (2005). “Karyotypes of two American field crickets: Gryllus rubens and Gryllus sp. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)”. Entomological Science 8 (3): 219–222. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8298.2005.00118.x. 
  57. ^ Meyer BJ (1997). “Sex Determination and X Chromosome Dosage Compensation: Sexual Dimorphism”. C. elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-532-3. オリジナルの6 May 2021時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20094/ 2021年4月17日閲覧。 
  58. ^ Handbuch Der Zoologie / Handbook of Zoology. Walter de Gruyter. (1925). ISBN 978-3-11-016210-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=5w8FgSGuH34C&pg=PA461&q=ZO%2Bsex-determination%2Bsystem%2Bmoth 2020年9月29日閲覧。 
  59. ^ Tanurdzic M, Banks JA (2004). “Sex-determining mechanisms in land plants”. The Plant Cell 16 Suppl (Suppl): S61–S71. doi:10.1105/tpc.016667. PMC 2643385. PMID 15084718. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2643385/. 
  60. ^ Fusco G, Minelli A (2019) (英語). The Biology of Reproduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124. ISBN 978-1-108-49985-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=AKGsDwAAQBAJ&q=sequential%2Bhermaphroditism%2Bin%2Bplants 
  61. ^ Todd EV, Liu H, Muncaster S, Gemmell NJ (2016). “Bending Genders: The Biology of Natural Sex Change in Fish” (english). Sexual Development 10 (5–6): 223–2241. doi:10.1159/000449297. hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30153787. PMID 27820936. 
  62. ^ Gilbert SF (2000). “Environmental Sex Determination” (英語). Developmental Biology. 6th Edition. オリジナルの12 June 2021時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20210612123300/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9989/ 2021年5月19日閲覧。. 
  63. ^ Charlesworth B (August 2003). “Sex determination in the honeybee”. Cell 114 (4): 397–398. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00610-X. PMID 12941267. 
  64. ^ de la Filia A, Bain S, Ross L (June 2015). “Haplodiploidy and the reproductive ecology of Arthropods”. Current Opinion in Insect Science 9: 36–43. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2015.04.018. hdl:20.500.11820/b540f12f-846d-4a5a-9120-7b2c45615be6. PMID 32846706. オリジナルの25 June 2021時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20210625230005/https://www.pure.ed.ac.uk/ws/files/20137629/1_s2.0_S221457451500084X_main.pdf 2021年6月25日閲覧。. 
  65. ^ Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 141–143. https://archive.org/details/geneticaltheoryo031631mbp/page/n163/mode/1up 
  66. ^ Hamilton, W. D. (1967). “Extraordinary Sex Ratios: A Sex-ratio Theory for Sex Linkage and Inbreeding Has New Implications in Cytogenetics and Entomology”. Science 156 (3774): 477–488. Bibcode1967Sci...156..477H. doi:10.1126/science.156.3774.477. JSTOR 1721222. PMID 6021675. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1721222. 
  67. ^ Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yamamoto, Yuuka; Kazutaka, Kawatsu; Vargo, Edward L.; Yoshimura, Jin; Matsuura, Kenji (2013). “Sex ratio biases in termites provide evidence for kin selection”. Nat Commun 4: 2048. Bibcode2013NatCo...4.2048K. doi:10.1038/ncomms3048. hdl:2123/11211. PMID 23807025. 
  68. ^ Trend Analysis of the sex Ratio at Birth in the United States”. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. 2006年6月25日閲覧。
  69. ^ Davis, Devra Lee; Gottlieb, Michelle and Stampnitzky, Julie; "Reduced Ratio of Male to Female Births in Several Industrial Countries" in Journal of the American Medical Association; April 1, 1998, volume 279(13); pp. 1018-1023
  70. ^ CIA Fact Book”. The Central Intelligence Agency of the United States. 2007年6月13日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2009年4月9日閲覧。
  71. ^ Whitfield J (June 2004). “Everything you always wanted to know about sexes”. PLOS Biology 2 (6): e183. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183. PMC 423151. PMID 15208728. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC423151/. "One thing biologists do agree on is that males and females count as different sexes. And they also agree that the main difference between the two is gamete size: males make lots of small gametes—sperm in animals, pollen in plants—and females produce a few big eggs." 
  72. ^ Pierce BA (2012) (英語). Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. W.H. Freeman. pp. 74. ISBN 978-1-4292-3252-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=z4pXRaZAkdkC&q=Gamete%2Bsize 
  73. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2016) (英語). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-0-19-878860-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=ekonDAAAQBAJ&q=the%2Bselfish%2Bgene%2Bbattle%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bsexes%2B2016. "However, there is one fundamental feature of the sexes which can be used to label males as males, and females as females, throughout animals and plants. This is that the sex cells or 'gametes' of males are much smaller and more numerous than the gametes of females. This is true whether we are dealing with animals or plants. One group of individuals has large sex cells, and it is convenient to use the word female for them. The other group, which it is convenient to call male, has small sex cells. The difference is especially pronounced in reptiles and in birds, where a single egg cell is big enough and nutritious enough to feed a developing baby for. Even in humans, where the egg is microscopic, it is still many times larger than the sperm. As we shall see, it is possible to interpret all the other differences between the sexes as stemming from this one basic difference." 
  74. ^ a b Mori, Emiliano; Mazza, Giuseppe; Lovari, Sandro (2017). "Sexual Dimorphism". In Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd (eds.). Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior (英語). Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_433-1. ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6. 2021年6月5日閲覧
  75. ^ Robin, V. V.; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma (2011). “Determining the sex of a monomorphic threatened, endemic passerine in the sky islands of southern India using molecular and morphometric methods”. Current Science 101 (5): 676–679. ISSN 0011-3891. JSTOR 24078632. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24078632. "Many species of birds are, however, monomorphic and difficult to sex visually, particularly in the field and some even in hand. Some examples are the Hill Mynah, Gracula religiosa and the Black-capped Chickadee, Parus atricapillus." 
  76. ^ a b c Choe J (2019). “Body Size and Sexual Dimorphism” (英語). Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. 2. Academic Press. pp. 7–11. ISBN 978-0-12-813252-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=O5lnDwAAQBAJ&pg=RA1-PA7 
  77. ^ Wilkinson GS, Reillo PR (22 January 1994). “Female choice response to artificial selection on an exaggerated male trait in a stalk-eyed fly”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 225 (1342): 1–6. Bibcode1994RSPSB.255....1W. doi:10.1098/rspb.1994.0001. オリジナルのSeptember 10, 2006時点におけるアーカイブ。. https://web.archive.org/web/20060910164858/http://www.indiana.edu/~curtweb/L567/readings/Wilkinson_%26_Reillo_1994.pdf. 
  78. ^ Drees BM, Jackman J (1999). “Southern black widow spider”. Field Guide to Texas Insects. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company. オリジナルの31 August 2003時点におけるアーカイブ。. http://insects.tamu.edu/fieldguide/cimg368.html 2012年8月8日閲覧。 
  79. ^ Stuart-Smith J, Swain R, Stuart-Smith R, Wapstra E (2007). “Is fecundity the ultimate cause of female-biased size dimorphism in a dragon lizard?”. Journal of Zoology 273 (3): 266–272. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00324.x. 
  80. ^ Shaw AJ (2000). “Population ecology, population genetics, and microevolution”. Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 379–380. ISBN 978-0-521-66097-6 
  81. ^ a b Schuster RM (1984). “Comparative Anatomy and Morphology of the Hepaticae”. New Manual of Bryology. 2. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan: The Hattori botanical Laboratory. p. 891 
  82. ^ Crum HA, Anderson LE (1980). Mosses of Eastern North America. 1. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-231-04516-2 
  83. ^ Briggs DA (1965). “Experimental taxonomy of some British species of genus Dicranum”. New Phytologist 64 (3): 366–386. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1965.tb07546.x. 
  84. ^ Zahavi A, Zahavi A (1997). The handicap principle: a missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510035-8. https://archive.org/details/handicapprincipl0000zeha 
  85. ^ Kliman, Richard (2016). Herridge, Elizabeth J. ed (英語). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. 2. Academic Press. pp. 453–454. ISBN 978-0-12-800426-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=_r4OCAAAQBAJ&pg=RA1 
  86. ^ Henshaw, Jonathan M.; Fromhage, Lutz; Jones, Adam G. (2019-08-28). “Sex roles and the evolution of parental care specialization”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 286 (1909): 20191312. doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.1312. PMC 6732396. PMID 31455191. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732396/. 
  87. ^ Reboreda, Juan Carlos; Fiorini, Vanina Dafne; Tuero, Diego Tomás (2019) (英語). Behavioral Ecology of Neotropical Birds. Springer. pp. 75. ISBN 978-3-030-14280-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=ItmUDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA75&q=behavioral%2Becology%2Bchoosy%2Bfemale 
  88. ^ Sexual Selection | Learn Science at Scitable”. www.nature.com. 2021年10月9日時点のオリジナルよりアーカイブ。2021年7月25日閲覧。



「有性」の例文・使い方・用例・文例

Weblio日本語例文用例辞書はプログラムで機械的に例文を生成しているため、不適切な項目が含まれていることもあります。ご了承くださいませ。



有性と同じ種類の言葉


英和和英テキスト翻訳>> Weblio翻訳
英語⇒日本語日本語⇒英語
  

辞書ショートカット

すべての辞書の索引

「有性」の関連用語

有性のお隣キーワード
検索ランキング

   

英語⇒日本語
日本語⇒英語
   



有性のページの著作権
Weblio 辞書 情報提供元は 参加元一覧 にて確認できます。

   
デジタル大辞泉デジタル大辞泉
(C)Shogakukan Inc.
株式会社 小学館
JabionJabion
Copyright (C) 2024 NII,NIG,TUS. All Rights Reserved.
ウィキペディアウィキペディア
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.
この記事は、ウィキペディアの性 (生物学) (改訂履歴)の記事を複製、再配布したものにあたり、GNU Free Documentation Licenseというライセンスの下で提供されています。 Weblio辞書に掲載されているウィキペディアの記事も、全てGNU Free Documentation Licenseの元に提供されております。
Tanaka Corpusのコンテンツは、特に明示されている場合を除いて、次のライセンスに従います:
 Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 2.0 France.
この対訳データはCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unportedでライセンスされています。
浜島書店 Catch a Wave
Copyright © 1995-2024 Hamajima Shoten, Publishers. All rights reserved.
株式会社ベネッセコーポレーション株式会社ベネッセコーポレーション
Copyright © Benesse Holdings, Inc. All rights reserved.
研究社研究社
Copyright (c) 1995-2024 Kenkyusha Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
日本語WordNet日本語WordNet
日本語ワードネット1.1版 (C) 情報通信研究機構, 2009-2010 License All rights reserved.
WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved. License
日外アソシエーツ株式会社日外アソシエーツ株式会社
Copyright (C) 1994- Nichigai Associates, Inc., All rights reserved.
「斎藤和英大辞典」斎藤秀三郎著、日外アソシエーツ辞書編集部編
EDRDGEDRDG
This page uses the JMdict dictionary files. These files are the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and are used in conformance with the Group's licence.

©2024 GRAS Group, Inc.RSS