髄膜炎 疫学

髄膜炎

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2022/11/18 05:57 UTC 版)

疫学

髄膜炎菌性髄膜炎の人口統計
  髄膜炎ベルト
  流行発生地域
  散発的症例のみ

髄膜炎は多くの国で法定伝染病に指定されているが、正確な発症率は明らかにされていない[12]西洋諸国では、年間に成人10万人に3人の割合で細菌性髄膜炎を発症している。Population-wide諸試験によればウイルス性髄膜炎の方が頻度が高く、100,000人に10.9人の割合で発症し、夏に増える傾向がみられる。ブラジルでは細菌性髄膜炎の方が発症率が高く、年間100,000人に45.8人となっている[6]

サハラ以南アフリカでは100年以上にわたって髄膜炎菌性髄膜炎の大規模な集団発生に苦しんでおり[51]、"髄膜炎ベルト"と呼ばれている。乾季 (12月から6月)に流行する傾向にあり、流行期は2 - 3年続き、間の雨季に消失する[52]。この地域では罹患率が10万人につき100 - 800人となっており[53]、患者は充分な医療を受けられていない。原因は髄膜炎菌によるものが圧倒的である[6]。これまでに記録されている最も大規模な流行では、1996年 - 1997年にかけてこの地域全体を飲み込み、250,000人が発症し25,000人が死亡した[54]

髄膜炎菌性髄膜炎の集団発生は、兵舎や大学キャンパス、年1回のハッジ巡礼など[1]大勢が共同生活をする環境で発生する[40]。アフリカでの流行サイクルのパターンはよくわかっていないが、いくつかの因子が髄膜炎ベルトにおけるエピデミックの発現に関わっている。その中には医学的条件(集団の免疫学的な病気のかかりやすさ)、人口統計学的条件(旅行や大規模な集団の移動)、社会経済的条件(人口過密や 劣悪な生活環境)、気象条件(干ばつや砂嵐)、同時期に発生する感染症(急性呼吸器感染症等)などがある[53]

細菌性髄膜炎の原因の地域的な分布には顕著な違いがある。例えば N. Meningitides(髄膜炎菌)B群およびC群のほとんどはヨーロッパに発生しており、A群はアジア、次いでアフリカで優勢である。アフリカでは髄膜炎ベルトにおける大規模流行の原因となっており、記録されている髄膜炎菌性髄膜炎例の80%~85%を占める[53]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Sáez-Llorens X, McCracken GH (June 2003). “Bacterial meningitis in children”. Lancet 361 (9375): 2139–48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13693-8. PMID 12826449. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ginsberg L (March 2004). “Difficult and recurrent meningitis”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 75 Suppl 1 (90001): i16–21. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.034272. PMC 1765649. PMID 14978146. http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/75/suppl_1/i16.full.pdf. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL et al. (November 2004). “Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 39 (9): 1267–84. doi:10.1086/425368. PMID 15494903. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/9/1267.full.pdf. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s van de Beek D, de Gans J, Tunkel AR, Wijdicks EF (January 2006). “Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults”. The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (1): 44–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052116. PMID 16394301. 
  5. ^ a b van de Beek D, de Gans J, Spanjaard L, Weisfelt M, Reitsma JB, Vermeulen M (October 2004). “Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis” (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine 351 (18): 1849–59. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040845. PMID 15509818. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa040845. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Attia J, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Wong JG (July 1999). “The rational clinical examination. Does this adult patient have acute meningitis?”. Journal of the American Medical Association 282 (2): 175–81. doi:10.1001/jama.282.2.175. PMID 10411200. 
  7. ^ a b c Theilen U, Wilson L, Wilson G, Beattie JO, Qureshi S, Simpson D (June 2008). “Management of invasive meningococcal disease in children and young people: Summary of SIGN guidelines”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 336 (7657): 1367–70. doi:10.1136/bmj.a129. PMC 2427067. PMID 18556318. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2427067/. 
  8. ^ Management of invasive meningococcal disease in children and young people. Edinburgh: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). (May 2008). ISBN 978-1-905813-31-5. http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign102.pdf 
  9. ^ Thomas KE, Hasbun R, Jekel J, Quagliarello VJ (July 2002). “The diagnostic accuracy of Kernig's sign, Brudzinski neck sign, and 項部硬直 in adults with suspected meningitis”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 35 (1): 46–52. doi:10.1086/340979. PMID 12060874. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/1/46.full.pdf. 
  10. ^ 岡田定 編, 「最速!聖路加診断術」, p45.
  11. ^ Tokuda Y, et al. Internal Med. 2009;48:537-43.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Logan SA, MacMahon E (January 2008). “Viral meningitis”. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 336 (7634): 36–40. doi:10.1136/bmj.39409.673657.AE. PMC 2174764. PMID 18174598. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174764/. 
  13. ^ Varon J, Chen K, Sternbach GL (1998). “Rupert Waterhouse and Carl Friderichsen: adrenal apoplexy”. J Emerg Med 16 (4): 643–7. doi:10.1016/S0736-4679(98)00061-4. PMID 9696186. 
  14. ^ Raman Sharma R (2010). “Fungal infections of the nervous system: current perspective and controversies in management”. International journal of surgery (London, England) 8 (8): 591–601. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.07.293. PMID 20673817. 
  15. ^ a b c Sirven JI, Malamut BL (2008). Clinical neurology of the older adult (2nd ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 439. ISBN 9780781769471. https://books.google.ca/books?id=c1tL8C9ryMQC&pg=PA439&hl=en 
  16. ^ Honda H, Warren DK (2009 Sep). “Central nervous system infections: meningitis and brain abscess”. Infectious disease clinics of North America 23 (3): 609–23. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2009.04.009. PMID 19665086. 
  17. ^ Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Patterson TF (19 October 2012). “Fungal infections associated with contaminated methyprednisolone injections—preliminary report”. New England Journal of Medicine Online first. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1212617. 
  18. ^ Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Sobel JD, Dismukes WE. Essentials of clinical mycology (2nd ed. ed.). New York: Springer. p. 77. ISBN 9781441966391. https://books.google.ca/books?id=8IySvRT52KkC&pg=PA77&hl=en 
  19. ^ Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Sobel JD, Dismukes WE. Essentials of clinical mycology (2nd ed. ed.). New York: Springer. p. 31. ISBN 9781441966391. https://books.google.ca/books?id=8IySvRT52KkC&pg=PA31&hl=en 
  20. ^ Park, Benjamin J; Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, Marston BJ, Govender N, Pappas PG, Chiller TM. (2009年2月1日). “Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS”. AIDS 23 (4): 525–530. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328322ffac. PMID 19182676. 
  21. ^ a b Graeff-Teixeira C, da Silva AC, Yoshimura K (Apr 2009). “Update on eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and its clinical relevance”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 22 (2): 322–48. doi:10.1128/CMR.00044-08. PMC 2668237. PMID 19366917. http://cmr.asm.org/content/22/2/322.full.pdf. 
  22. ^ Gleissner B, Chamberlain MC (May 2006). “Neoplastic meningitis”. Lancet Neurol 5 (5): 443–52. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70443-4. PMID 16632315. 
  23. ^ Moris G, Garcia-Monco JC (June 1999). “The Challenge of Drug-Induced Aseptic Meningitis”. Archives of Internal Medicine 159 (11): 1185–94. doi:10.1001/archinte.159.11.1185. PMID 10371226. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/159/11/1185.pdf. 
  24. ^ Tebruegge M, Curtis N (July 2008). “Epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of recurrent bacterial meningitis”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 21 (3): 519–37. doi:10.1128/CMR.00009-08. PMC 2493086. PMID 18625686. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493086/. 
  25. ^ Provan, Drew; Andrew Krentz (2005). Oxford Handbook of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-856663-8 
  26. ^ a b c d e Chaudhuri A, Martinez–Martin P, Martin PM et al. (July 2008). “EFNS guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial meningitis in older children and adults”. European Journal of Neurolology 15 (7): 649–59. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02193.x. PMID 18582342. 
  27. ^ a b c d Straus SE, Thorpe KE, Holroyd-Leduc J (October 2006). “How do I perform a lumbar puncture and analyze the results to diagnose bacterial meningitis?”. Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (16): 2012–22. doi:10.1001/jama.296.16.2012. PMID 17062865. 
  28. ^ a b c d e Heyderman RS, Lambert HP, O'Sullivan I, Stuart JM, Taylor BL, Wall RA (February 2003). “Early management of suspected bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in adults”. The Journal of infection 46 (2): 75–7. doi:10.1053/jinf.2002.1110. PMID 12634067. http://www.britishinfection.org/drupal/sites/default/files/meningitisJI2003.pdf.  – formal guideline at British Infection Society & UK Meningitis Research Trust (2004年12月). “Early management of suspected meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in immunocompetent adults”. British Infection Society Guidelines. 2008年10月19日閲覧。
  29. ^ Maconochie I, Baumer H, Stewart ME (2008). MacOnochie, Ian K. ed. “Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004786. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004786.pub3. PMID 18254060. CD004786. 
  30. ^ a b Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F et al (2010). “Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 50 (3): 291–322. doi:10.1086/649858. PMID 20047480. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/3/291.long. 
  31. ^ Sakushima, K; Hayashino, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Jackson, JL; Fukuhara, S (2011 Apr). “Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis: a meta-analysis.”. The Journal of infection 62 (4): 255–62. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2011.02.010. PMID 21382412. 
  32. ^ Thwaites G, Chau TT, Mai NT, Drobniewski F, McAdam K, Farrar J (March 2000). “Tuberculous meningitis”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 68 (3): 289–99. doi:10.1136/jnnp.68.3.289. PMC 1736815. PMID 10675209. http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/68/3/289.full.pdf. 
  33. ^ a b c Bicanic T, Harrison TS (2004). “Cryptococcal meningitis”. British Medical Bulletin 72 (1): 99–118. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldh043. PMID 15838017. http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/72/1/99.full.pdf. 
  34. ^ Sloan D, Dlamini S, Paul N, Dedicoat M (2008). Sloan, Derek. ed. “Treatment of acute cryptococcal meningitis in HIV infected adults, with an emphasis on resource-limited settings”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005647. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005647.pub2. PMID 18843697. CD005647. 
  35. ^ Warrell DA, Farrar JJ, Crook DWM (2003). “24.14.1 Bacterial meningitis”. Oxford Textbook of Medicine Volume 3 (Fourth ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 1115–29. ISBN 0-19-852787-X 
  36. ^ a b c CDC – Meningitis: Transmission”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009年8月6日). 2011年6月18日閲覧。
  37. ^ a b c d e Segal S, Pollard AJ (2004). “Vaccines against bacterial meningitis”. British Medical Bulletin 72 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldh041. PMID 15802609. http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/72/1/65.full.pdf. 
  38. ^ a b Peltola H (April 2000). “Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae type b disease at the beginning of the 21st century: global analysis of the disease burden 25 years after the use of the polysaccharide vaccine and a decade after the advent of conjugates”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13 (2): 302–17. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.2.302-317.2000. PMC 100154. PMID 10756001. http://cmr.asm.org/content/13/2/302.full.pdf. 
  39. ^ a b c Harrison LH (January 2006). “Prospects for vaccine prevention of meningococcal infection”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 19 (1): 142–64. doi:10.1128/CMR.19.1.142-164.2006. PMC 1360272. PMID 16418528. http://cmr.asm.org/content/19/1/142.full.pdf. 
  40. ^ a b Wilder-Smith A (October 2007). “Meningococcal vaccine in travelers”. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 20 (5): 454–60. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282a64700. PMID 17762777. 
  41. ^ WHO (September 2000). “Detecting meningococcal meningitis epidemics in highly-endemic African countries” (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological Record 75 (38): 306–9. PMID 11045076. http://www.who.int/docstore/wer/pdf/2000/wer7538.pdf. 
  42. ^ Bishai, DM; Champion, C; Steele, ME; Thompson, L (2011 Jun). “Product development partnerships hit their stride: lessons from developing a meningitis vaccine for Africa.”. Health affairs (Project Hope) 30 (6): 1058–64. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0295. PMID 21653957. 
  43. ^ Marc LaForce, F; Ravenscroft, N; Djingarey, M; Viviani, S (2009 Jun 24). “Epidemic meningitis due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis in the African meningitis belt: a persistent problem with an imminent solution.”. Vaccine 27 Suppl 2: B13-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.062. PMID 19477559. 
  44. ^ a b Weisfelt M, de Gans J, van der Poll T, van de Beek D (April 2006). “Pneumococcal meningitis in adults: new approaches to management and prevention”. Lancet Neurol 5 (4): 332–42. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70409-4. PMID 16545750. 
  45. ^ a b Zalmanovici Trestioreanu, A; Fraser, A; Gafter-Gvili, A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L (2011 Aug 10). “Antibiotics for preventing meningococcal infections.”. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (8): CD004785. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004785.pub4. PMID 21833949. 
  46. ^ a b Ratilal, BO; Costa, J; Sampaio, C; Pappamikail, L (2011 Aug 10). “Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures.”. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (8): CD004884. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004884.pub3. PMID 21833952. 
  47. ^ Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet”. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) (2007年12月11日). 2009年4月27日閲覧。
  48. ^ Gottfredsson M, Perfect JR (2000). “Fungal meningitis”. Seminars in Neurology 20 (3): 307–22. doi:10.1055/s-2000-9394. PMID 11051295. 
  49. ^ Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002 (xls)”. World Health Organization (WHO) (2002年). 2009年11月11日閲覧。
  50. ^ Richardson MP, Reid A, Tarlow MJ, Rudd PT (February 1997). “Hearing loss during bacterial meningitis”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 76 (2): 134–38. doi:10.1136/adc.76.2.134. PMC 1717058. PMID 9068303. http://adc.bmj.com/content/76/2/134.full.pdf. 
  51. ^ Lapeyssonnie L (1963). “Cerebrospinal meningitis in Africa”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 28: SUPPL:1–114. PMC 2554630. PMID 14259333. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2554630/. 
  52. ^ Greenwood B (1999). “Manson Lecture. Meningococcal meningitis in Africa”. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93 (4): 341–53. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(99)90106-2. PMID 10674069. 
  53. ^ a b c World Health Organization (1998) (PDF). Control of epidemic meningococcal disease, practical guidelines, 2nd edition, WHO/EMC/BA/98. 3. pp. 1–83. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/meningitis/whoemcbac983.pdf 
  54. ^ WHO (2003). “Detecting meningococcal meningitis epidemics in highly-endemic African countries” (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological Record 78 (33): 294–6. PMID 14509123. http://www.who.int/wer/2003/en/wer7833.pdf. 
  55. ^ a b Arthur Earl Walker, Edward R. Laws, George B. Udvarhelyi (1998). “Infections and inflammatory involvement of the CNS”. The Genesis of Neuroscience. Thieme. pp. 219–21. ISBN 1-879284-62-6. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=UaSaRzw8gYEC&pg=PP1&redir_esc=y&hl=ja 
  56. ^ Whytt R (1768). Observations on the Dropsy in the Brain. Edinburgh: J. Balfour 
  57. ^ a b c Greenwood B (June 2006). “100 years of epidemic meningitis in West Africa – has anything changed?” (PDF). Tropical Medicine & International health: TM & IH 11 (6): 773–80. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01639.x. PMID 16771997. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01639.x/pdf. 
  58. ^ Vieusseux G (1806). “Mémoire sur le Maladie qui a regne à Génève au printemps de 1805” (French). Journal de Médecine, de Chirurgie et de Pharmacologie (Bruxelles) 11: 50–53. 
  59. ^ Weichselbaum A (1887). “Ueber die Aetiologie der akuten Meningitis cerebro-spinalis” (German). Fortschrift der Medizin 5: 573–583. 
  60. ^ Flexner S (1913). “The results of the serum treatment in thirteen hundred cases of epidemic meningitis”. J Exp Med 17 (5): 553–76. doi:10.1084/jem.17.5.553. PMC 2125091. PMID 19867668. http://jem.rupress.org/content/17/5/553.full.pdf. 
  61. ^ a b Swartz MN (October 2004). “Bacterial meningitis—a view of the past 90 years”. The New England Journal of Medicine 351 (18): 1826–28. doi:10.1056/NEJMp048246. PMID 15509815. 
  62. ^ Rosenberg DH, Arling PA (1944). “in the treatment of meningitis”. Journal of the American Medical Association 125 (15): 1011–17. doi:10.1001/jama.1944.02850330009002.  reproduced in Rosenberg DH, Arling PA (April 1984). “Penicillin in the treatment of meningitis”. Journal of the American Medical Association 251 (14): 1870–6. doi:10.1001/jama.251.14.1870. PMID 6366279. 
  63. ^ de Gans J, van de Beek D (November 2002). “Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis” (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine 347 (20): 1549–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021334. PMID 12432041. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa021334. 
  64. ^ Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, de Gans J, Prasad K, van de Beek D (2010). Van De Beek, Diederik. ed. “Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD004405. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004405.pub3. PMID 20824838. CD004405. 
  65. ^ 所見からせまる脳MRI ISBN 9784879623737
  66. ^ 上原すゞ子: 欧米におけるインフルエンザ菌b型(Hib)感染症の激減とHibワクチン. 日小児会誌 100: 1693-1696, 1996.






髄膜炎と同じ種類の言葉


固有名詞の分類


英和和英テキスト翻訳>> Weblio翻訳
英語⇒日本語日本語⇒英語
  

辞書ショートカット

すべての辞書の索引

「髄膜炎」の関連用語

髄膜炎のお隣キーワード
検索ランキング

   

英語⇒日本語
日本語⇒英語
   



髄膜炎のページの著作権
Weblio 辞書 情報提供元は 参加元一覧 にて確認できます。

   
ウィキペディアウィキペディア
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.
この記事は、ウィキペディアの髄膜炎 (改訂履歴)の記事を複製、再配布したものにあたり、GNU Free Documentation Licenseというライセンスの下で提供されています。 Weblio辞書に掲載されているウィキペディアの記事も、全てGNU Free Documentation Licenseの元に提供されております。

©2023 GRAS Group, Inc.RSS