農作業とは?

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農業

(農作業 から転送)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2017/09/09 22:11 UTC 版)

農業(のうぎょう)とは、土地の力を利用して有用な植物栽培し、また、有用な動物飼養する、有機的な生産業のこと[1]




  1. ^ 農産加工とは、より具体的に言うと、小麦から小麦粉の製造すること(製粉)、玄米の搗精(とうせい)、米の精米などの穀類の加工、製麺製糖デンプンデンプン糖の製造、油を絞ること(製油)、(油脂の加工)、果実から果汁を絞ること、「茶葉」の「茶」への加工(製茶)、大豆の加工(豆腐製造など)、野菜や果実の缶詰の製造、等々を指し得る。
  2. ^ バイオ燃料にはバイオマスから作られるメタンエタノールバイオディーゼル燃料などがある。
  1. ^ a b 広辞苑 第六版「農業」
  2. ^ ブリタニカ百科事典「農業」
  3. ^ Brickates Kennedy, Val (2007年10月16日). “Plastics that are green in more ways than one”. The Wall Street Journal (New York). http://www.marketwatch.com/story/bioengineers-aim-to-cash-in-on-plants-that-make-green-plastics 
  4. ^ Growing Plants for Pharmaceutical Production vs. for Food and Feed Crops”. bio.org. Washington DC: Biotechnology Industry Organization. 2009年10月2日閲覧。
  5. ^ Kuhr, Daniela (23. August 2012). “Mensch vor Maschine”. Süddeutsche Zeitung. http://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/diskussion-um-biokraftstoff-e-mensch-vor-maschine-1.1447917 
  6. ^ Cherki, Marc (21. Fevrier 2014). “Des plantes de plus en plus prisées pour du bioplastique”. Le Figaro. http://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/2014/02/21/01008-20140221ARTFIG00285-des-plantes-de-plus-en-plus-prisees-pour-du-bioplastique.php 
  7. ^ Schümann, Helmut (14. Oktober 2014). “Kühe, die in Windeln machen”. Der Tagesspiegel. http://www.tagesspiegel.de/weltspiegel/streit-um-dung-kuehe-die-in-windeln-machen/10839028.html 
  8. ^ For sustainable architecture, think bug”. NewScientist. 2010年2月26日閲覧。
  9. ^ B. Hölldobler & E.O. Wilson (1990). The Ants. Cambridge MA: Belknap. ISBN 978-0-674-48525-9. 
  10. ^ Human Health Issues | Pesticides | US EPA”. Epa.gov (2006年6月28日). 2009年11月26日閲覧。
  11. ^ EU Scientists Confirm Health Risks of Growth Hormones in Meat”. Organicconsumers.org. 2009年11月26日閲覧。
  12. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei; Bradsher, Keith (2005年12月8日). “Sometimes a Bumper Crop Is Too Much of a Good Thing”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/08/business/worldbusiness/08farmers.html 
  13. ^ Schneider, Keith (1989年9月8日). “Science Academy Recommends Resumption of Natural Farming”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/09/08/us/science-academy-recommends-resumption-of-natural-farming.html 
  14. ^ European Commission (2003), CAP Reform.
  15. ^ “At Tyson and Kraft, Grain Costs Limit Profit”. The New York Times. Bloomberg. (2007年9月6日). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/06/business/06tyson.html?n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/W/Wheat 
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  18. ^ a b Mortished, Carl (March 7, 2008)."Already we have riots, hoarding, panic: the sign of things to come?", The Times (London).
  19. ^ a b Borger, Julian (February 26, 2008). "Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits", The Guardian (London).
  20. ^ McKie, Robin; Rice, Xan (April 22, 2007). "Millions face famine as crop disease rages", The Observer' (London).
  21. ^ Mackenzie, Debora (April 3, 2007). “Billions at risk from wheat super-blight”. New Scientist (London) (2598): 6–7. オリジナルの2007-5-9時点によるアーカイブ。. http://web.archive.org/web/20070509024241/http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19425983.700-billions-at-risk-from-wheat-superblight.html 2007年4月19日閲覧。. 
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  23. ^ Sample, Ian (August 31, 2007). "Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land", The Guardian (London).
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  37. ^ Mayer, Joachim (7. Februar 2015). Gemüse biologisch anbauen: Selbst gezogen, frisch geerntet. Gräfe und Unzer Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-83383-803-3. 
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  48. ^ Berg, Paul; Singer, Maxine (August 15, 2003). George Beadle: An Uncommon Farmer. The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th century. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-688-7. 
  49. ^ Ruttan, Vernon W. (December 1999). “Biotechnology and Agriculture: A Skeptical Perspective” (–Scholar search). AgBioForum 2 (1): 54–60. http://www.mindfully.org/GE/Skeptical-Perspective-VW-Ruttan.htm 2007年10月11日閲覧。. 
  50. ^ Cassman, K. (December 5, 1998). “Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: The Challenge of increasing crop yield potential and precision agriculture”. Proceedings of a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium, Irvine, California (University of Nebraska). 
  51. ^ a b Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the US: Extent of Adoption. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
  52. ^ a b Farmers Guide to GMOs. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
  53. ^ Report Raises Alarm over 'Super-weeds'. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
  54. ^ Ozturk, et al., "Glyphosate inhibition of ferric reductase activity in iron deficient sunflower roots", New Phtologist, 177:899-906, 2008.
  55. ^ Kimbrell, A. Faltal Harvest: The Tragedy of Industrial Agriculture, Island Press, Washington, 2002.
  56. ^ Conway, G. (2000). Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. 4(1): 2. Conservation Ecology. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol4/iss1/art2/#GeneticModificationAndTheSustainabilityOfTheFoodSystem. 
  57. ^ . R. Pillarisetti and Kylie Radel (June 2004). Economic and Environmental Issues in International Trade and Production of Genetically Modified Foods and Crops and the WTO. 19. Journal of Economic Integration. pp. 332–352. 
  58. ^ UN biodiversity meet fails to address key outstanding issues, Third World Network. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
  59. ^ Who Owns Nature?. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
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  61. ^ Nabhan, Gary Paul. Enduring Seeds, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1989.
  62. ^ Shiva, Vanadana. Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply South End Press, Cambrdge, MA, 2000, pp. 90-93.
  63. ^ Shiva, Vandana. Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace, South End Press, Cambridge, MA, 2005.
  64. ^ Jowit, Juliette (2010年9月22日). “Corporate Lobbying Is Blocking Food Reforms, Senior UN Official Warns: Farming Summit Told of Delaying Tactics by Large Agribusiness and Food Producers on Decisions that Would Improve Human Health and the Environment”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/22/food-firms-lobbying-samuel-jutzi 2010年12月23日閲覧。 , The Guardian (UK), 2010 Sept. 22
  65. ^ Pretty et al., J (2000). “An assessment of the total external costs of UK agriculture”. Agricultural Systems 65 (2): 113–136. doi:10.1016/S0308-521X(00)00031-7. 
  66. ^ Tegtmeier, E.M.; Duffy, M. (2005). “External Costs of Agricultural Production in the United States”. The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Agriculture. http://www.organicvalley.coop/fileadmin/pdf/ag_costs_IJAS2004.pdf. 
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  68. ^ Steinfeld, H.; Gerber, P.; Wassenaar, T.; Castel, V.; Rosales, M.; de Haan, C. 2006. U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome. "Livestock's Long Shadow - Environmental issues and options."
  69. ^ Vitousek, P.M.; Mooney, H.A.; Lubchenco, J.; Melillo, J.M. 1997. "Human Domination of Earth's Ecosystems". Science 277:494-499.
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  71. ^ Carpenter, S.R., N.F. Caraco, D.L. Correll, R.W. Howarth, A.N. Sharpley, and V.H. Smith. 1998. "Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen". Ecological Applications 8:559-568.
  72. ^ Pimentel, D. T.W. Culliney, and T. Bashore. 1996. "Public health risks associated with pesticides and natural toxins in foods in Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook". Retrieved December 7, 2008.
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  75. ^ Avery, D.T. 2000. Saving the Planet with Pesticides and Plastic: The Environmental Triumph of High-Yield Farming. Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, IN.
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  80. ^ Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 2002. "Nitrogen and Sulfur Economy of Soils" pp.386-421 in Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  81. ^ Baxter, Joan (2003年5月19日). “Cotton subsidies squeeze Mali”. BBC News Online (London). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3027079.stm 2010年1月1日閲覧。 
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  114. ^ Record rise in wheat price prompts UN official to warn that surge in food prices may trigger social unrest in developing countries
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