肥満 肥満と疾患

肥満

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2021/11/10 17:09 UTC 版)

肥満と疾患

単純性肥満

肥満体のトースカーナの将軍
アレッサンドロ・デルボロ作(17世紀)
肥満の女(病草紙から)

親のいずれか、もしくは両親とも肥満であることが多く、身長が暦年齢相当で、精神運動発達は正常、奇形は見られない。食生活が最も影響する。

肥満、疾患、合併症

シンシナティ小児病院医療センター(en:Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center)で行われた研究では、「肥満の女の子は思春期初来が早く、胸が大きくなり始める(乳房の発達が始まる)のが早い」という。これは男の子でも同様であり、「肥満の男児は第二次性徴が早く発現する」[21]。脂肪沈着は、皮下脂肪から内臓脂肪へ、さらには脂肪以外の臓器(異所性脂肪)へと進行し、それに伴って以下の合併症の頻度が大きくなる。

  • 各種の癌 ・・・ 最大の原因は砂糖および果糖の摂取にある。これの摂取を断つことが、癌の予防や治療への取り組みとなりうることを示唆している[22]
  • 肝臓癌・・・多くの癌で死亡リスクが増大するが、相対危険度が最も高いのは肝臓癌であった[23]
  • 胃癌 [23]
  • 変形性関節症・・・体重が1kg増加するごとに、膝関節への負荷は3kgほど増加するとされる[24]。肥満は変形性膝関節症変形性股関節症といった関節症のリスクも助長する。体重が5kg増えるごとに、変形性膝関節症のリスクは36%上昇するという[25]
  • 下肢静脈瘤[26]
生活習慣とがんの関連[27][28](抄)
(WHO/国際がん研究機関(IARC))
関連の強さ リスクを下げるもの(部位) リスクを上げるもの(部位)
確実 身体活動(結腸) 過体重と肥満(食道<腺がん>、結腸、直腸、乳房<閉経後>、子宮体部、腎臓)、(略)
可能性大 身体活動(乳房)、(略) (略)

症候性肥満・二次性肥満

肥満による代謝異常や内分泌疾患を症候性肥満二次性肥満)と呼ぶ[29]

肥満による死亡率

喫煙しないアメリカの白人男性(左)および白人女性(右)のBMIごとの10年後の相対的死亡リスク[32]。最も死亡リスクが低いのはBMI20-22前後である。


国立がん研究センターによる16万人の男性に対する平均11年間の追跡調査によれば、全死因でもっとも死亡率が少なかったのは、BMI値が25 - 26.9とされたグループであったという。このグループは「肥満」に該当する[33]

アメリカ疾病管理予防センターが様々な人種の約288万人を対象に行った研究結果によれば、「BMI値が『18.5 - 25未満の標準体重グループ』と『25 - 30未満の過体重グループ』では、過体重グループの方が死亡リスクが6%も低い」という[34]


注釈

  1. ^ 生活習慣に着目した疾病対策の基本的方向性について(意見具申)」では肥満を「生活習慣病」の1つに含めている。

出典

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  5. ^ BMIチェックによって自分の肥満度と標準体重を確認しよう | HelC+(ヘルシー)”. www.health.ne.jp. 2020年3月25日閲覧。
  6. ^ a b c d e f 脂肪細胞とインスリン抵抗性
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  9. ^ 塩分摂取による高血圧発症にエピジェネティクスが関与することを解明 東京大学医学部附属病院 2011年04月18日
  10. ^ 利尿を抑えるホルモン"バソプレシン"の脳の中の新たな作用を発見
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