フラッパーとは?

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フラッパー

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2013/12/24 01:24 UTC 版)

フラッパー: Flapper)は、1920年代に欧米で流行したファッション、生活スタイルを好んだ「新しい」若い女性を指すスラング。それまで女性らしいとされてきた装いや行動様式ではなく、膝丈の短いスカート、ショートヘアのボブカットジャズ音楽などを好んで、濃いメイクアップ強い酒を飲み、性交渉、喫煙、ドライブを積極的に楽しむという、以前までの女性に求められてきた社会的、性的規範を軽視した女性たちを意味する[1]


  1. ^ 言葉自体はもっと早くからアメリカでも存在していた[9][23]
  1. ^ Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Flappers in the Roaring Twenties”. About.com. 2010年4月25日閲覧。
  2. ^ Evans, Ivan H. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (rev. ed.) New York: Harper & Row, 1981 ISBN 0-06-014903-5
  3. ^ “flapper”, Online Etymology Dictionary, Reference, (April 26, 2007), http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/flapper .
  4. ^ Mabbe, James. Celestina IX. 110 "Fall to your flap, my Masters, kisse and clip”; 112 “Come hither, you foule flappes."
  5. ^ Lowsley, Barzillai. A glossary of Berkshire words and phrases 1888 (E.D.S.): "Vlapper,.. applied in joke to a girl of the bread-and-butter age."
  6. ^ Barrere; Leland (1889), Dictionary of Slang, "Flippers, flappers, very young girls trained to vice" .
  7. ^ a b Savage, Jon. Teenage: The Creation of Youth Culture. New York: Viking, 2007. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-670-03837-4
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, (1989) .
  9. ^ a b “The Comedy Old Man and His Troubles”. The New York Times. (3 February 1907). "What are 'flappers'? Why, they are the young girls with their hair still hanging down their backs. They are the sort that can climb up ropes hand over hand and pose at the top." 
  10. ^ The Times (38574): p 15, col F, (Thursday, February 20, 1908) .
  11. ^ James, A. E. "Her Majesty the Flapper". London Magazine (1910)
  12. ^ “review of the 1911 comedy Lady Patricia”, The Times (39540): p 10, col C, (Thursday, March 23, 1911) 
  13. ^ “Some facts about the ballet”, The New York Times, (31 March 1912), "タイラーは(演劇の世界で言うところの)「ポニー」と「フラッパー」との違いを次のように述べている。ポニーは年齢に関係なく駆け出しのダンサーを意味し、フラッパーはいまにも世に出そうな少女のことだ。フラッパーは子供でも大人でもない中途半端な年齢の女性で、ポニーを卒業してショウガールとなる女優を意味している。" 。タイラーはタイラーは「世に出そうな」という言葉を「成人女性として正式に社会の一員となる」(オックスフォード英語辞典)という意味で用いている。当時の上流社会では、正式に社交界にデビューしていない10代の少女はまだ子供であるとみなされていた。社交の場においてこのような少女には、控えめで男性の目を惹かないような態度が求められていた。
  14. ^ The Times (40576): p 1, col B, (Wednesday, Jul 15, 1914) 
  15. ^ “£600 Damages For Breach of Promise”, The Times (40344): p 15, col D, (Thursday, Oct 16, 1913), "I cannot bear to think of my flapper without an engagement ring." 
  16. ^ Daily News. (11 November 1918). p. 4. "One day, at noon, I was in a departmental office of the Ministry of Munitions... very young girls and flappers, and young women, and women who were elderly, came out to their lunches..." 
  17. ^ The Times (42232): p 7, col B, (Thursday, Oct 16, 1919) 
  18. ^ The Times (42326): p 9, col A, (Thursday, 5 Feb 1920) .
  19. ^ "Flappers flaunt fads in footwear" The New York Times (January 29, 1922). The article alleges the origin of the fashion was a Douglas Fairbanks costume in the film The Three Musketeers, in which he wore his boot-tops turned down.
  20. ^ Basinger, Jeanne (2000), Silent Stars, Wesleyan .
  21. ^ Strong, Marion in Brady, Kathleen (2001), Lucille: The life of Lucille Ball, Billboard, "The more noise the buckles made, the better they flapped, that's why we were called flappers" .
  22. ^ The Times (London, England): ‘Delivering Drunkards’, 2 December 1936, p. 15
  23. ^ The New Brunswick Times, (24 February 1910), "「イングランドではかなり以前から10代の少女のことをフラッパーと呼んでいた……」" 
  24. ^ a b “Memories of Olive”, Olive Thomas, Assumption, http://www.assumption.edu/ahc/1920s/Olive%20Thomas/ .
  25. ^ Long, Bruce, ed., Taylorology: A Continuing Exploration of the Life and Death of William Desmond Taylor, Arizona State University, http://www.public.asu.edu/~ialong/Taylor33.txt .
  26. ^ De Castelbajac 1995, p. 35.
  27. ^ a b Conor, Liz. The Spectacular Modern Woman: Feminine Visibility in The 1920s 2004. p. 301
  28. ^ a b Zeitz 2007, p. 6.
  29. ^ Praga, Mrs. Alfred (29 July 1917). “"Sporting" girls and the risks they run. An open letter to "The Flappers" of England”. The Weekly Dispatch: 7. "My dear “Flappers” – I wonder if any of you in your gay youthfulness ever realise what a lot of harm you are doing to your future happiness by the way you sometimes cheapen yourselves in the eyes of your men “pals”, as you love to call them..."  The article goes on to describe flappers haunting public venues in order to "get off" with men.
  30. ^ Graves, Robert; Hodge, Alan (1994), The Long Week End: a Social History of Great Britain, 1918–1939, pp. 33–34 .
  31. ^ “Backfisch” (German), Wiktionary, Wikimedia, http://de.wiktionary.org/wiki/Backfisch .
  32. ^ Backfisch” (German), Wikipedia, Wikimedia .
  33. ^ The New Brunswick Times, (24 February 1910), "...a typical German girl of the well to do class between the ages of fifteen and seventeen. Before she gets to be fifteen she is simply a 'kid' as we say in this country. But for those two years she is a backfisch pure and simple."  The article implies the girl is so designated to prevent someone no longer a child attempting to assume the airs of an adult woman: "These German frauleins dare not do so, because they know they are mere backfisches." The article concludes "And over in England, as I learned, they call a girl of about fifteen a 'flapper'. If I were still but fifteen I am sure I would prefer being a backfisch.”
  34. ^ Pall Mall Gaz 3 (2), (29 Aug), "Let us introduce the word 'Backfisch', for we have the Backfisch always with us. She ranges from fifteen to eighteen years of age, keeps a diary, climbs trees secretly, blushes on the smallest provocation, and has no conversation." , in the Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.), (1989) .
  35. ^ du Puy, President of the League of American Pen Women, Mrs William Atherton (15 October 1921), “Let Girls Smoke, Mrs Dupuy's Plea”, The New York Times, "そうだ、彼女たちはタバコを吸う。不摂生など気にしない。20年前には若い女性たちがカフェに押しかけて酒を飲むなどということはなかった。すべて禁酒法への反動がもたらしたものだといえる。" .
  36. ^ “Mothers Complain that Modern Girls 'Vamp' Their Sons at Petting Parties”, The New York Times, (Feb 17, 1922) . An earlier article in the same newspaper rebutted an attack on the behaviour of American girls made recently in the Cosmopolitan by Elinor Glyn. It admitted the existence of petting parties but considered the activities were no worse than those which had gone on in earlier times under the guise of "kissing games", adding that tales of what occurred at such events were likely to be exaggerated by an older generation influenced by traditional misogyny:Dupuy, Mrs William Atherton (October 15, 1921), The New York Times .
  37. ^ McArthur, Judith N; Smith, Harold L (2010), Texas Through Women's Eyes: The Twentieth-Century Experience, pp. 104–5, http://books.google.com/books?id=_txLjKkckCYC&pg=PA105, "ペッティング・パーティーは軽佻浮薄こそが真髄である。その目的は結婚ではなく刹那的なスリルにある。昔であれば欺瞞に満ちた「男子禁制」「女子禁制」という名目で行われていたパーティーである。以前はこのようなパーティーに女性はひとりしか呼ばれなかったが、今では20人からの女性が参加している。" 
  38. ^ Drowne, Kathleen Morgan; Huber, Patrick, The 1920s, p. 45, http://books.google.com/books?id=CecCHiI95dYC&pg=PA45 
  39. ^ Nelson, Lawrence J (2003), Rumors of Indiscretion, p. 39, http://books.google.com/books?id=o0hCZkuwlhAC&pg=PA39 .
  40. ^ Bragdon, Claude (2007), Delphic Woman, pp. 45–46, http://books.google.com/books?id=Z12OIL1jIMYC&pg=PA45 .
  41. ^ Fitzgerald, F. Scott (2005), “What I think and feel at 25” (PDF), Fitzgerald: My Lost City: Personal Essays, 1920–1940, p. 17, http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/pdf/FITZGERALD%201.pdf 
  42. ^ Havemann, Ernest. "The Kinsey Report on Women" Life (August 24, 1953)
  43. ^ a b c d e Kemper, Rachel (December 1977). History of Costume. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-88225-137-0. 
  44. ^ “The Short Skirt Misconception of the Twenties”, Flapper fashion 1920s, Fashion era, http://www.fashion-era.com/flapper_fashion_1920s.htm#The%20Short%20Skirt%20Misconception%20Of%20The%20Twenties, "Shortness is a popular misconception reinforced by the availability of moving film of the Charleston dance which shows very visible knees and legs on the dancing flappers." 
  45. ^ “Mme Nordica Buys No Paris Gowns”, The New York Times, (January 1, 1913) 
  46. ^ “Mme Nordica Buys No Paris Gowns”, The New York Times, (January 1, 1913), "...when a lady of uncertain age and very certain development attempts the same little costume because it looks well on the thin little girl, well – " And Mme. Nordica left the result to the interviewer's imagination." 
  47. ^ “Evolution of the flapper fashion”, Flapper fashion 1920s, Fashion era, http://www.fashion-era.com/flapper_fashion_1920s.htm#Gabrielle%20%27Coco%27%20Chanel .
  48. ^ The Times: 11, (December 23, 1915), "…the jaunty little toque" 
  49. ^ “Pantomime At The Front, Soldier "Heroines"”, The Times (41050): p 7, col E, (Thursday, December 30, 1915), "There was, for instance, a Maid Marian in the cast, who was described as a "dainty dam'sell" because she was a sergeant. There was something ridiculously fascinating about that sergeant, for he was in blue short skirts, a hat of Parisian type and flapper-like hair; and when she was instructing Ferdinand, a Bad Lad... in the use of the "glad eye", the great audience shouted with laughter." 
  50. ^ Fritzi Ritz Before Bushmiller: She’s Come a Long Way, Baby!, Hogan's Alley #7
  51. ^ Lowry, Helen Bullitt. "On the Knees of Our College Girls" The New York Times (February 2, 1922)
  52. ^ Bergstein, Rachelle. Women From the Ankle Down: The Story of Shoes and How They Define Us New York: HarperCollins, 2012. ISBN 0‐06209707‐5.
  53. ^ Lorrain, Jean (before 1906) (description), "...the great voracious mouth, the immense black eyes, ringed, bruised, discoloured, the incandescence of her pupils, the bewildered nocturnal hair..." 
  54. ^ “Polaire”, Commons (category), Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Polaire .
  55. ^ a b Kriebl, Karen J (1998). “From bloomers to flappers: the American women's dress reform movement, 1840–1920”. Ohio State University: 113–28. 
  56. ^ a b c Yellis, Kenneth A (1969年). “Prosperity's Child: Some thoughts on the Flapper”. The American Quarterly: pp. 44–64 
  57. ^ Lowry, Helen (1921年1月30日). “As the debutante tells it: more about Mrs Grundy and Miss 1921”. The New York Times 
  58. ^ Freedman, Estelle B. (1974). “The New Woman: Changing views of Women in the 1920s”. The Journal of American History: 372–93. 






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