大腸菌 ゲノミクス

大腸菌

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2024/06/24 09:41 UTC 版)

ゲノミクス

初期の電子顕微鏡を用いた大腸菌の画像。

大腸菌(実験室株K-12に由来するMG1655株)の最初の完全なDNA配列は1997年に公開された。大腸菌のゲノムは460万塩基対の長さの環状DNA分子であり、4,288の注釈付きタンパク質コーディング遺伝子(2584オペロンに編成)、7のリボソームRNA (rRNA)オペロン、86のトランスファーRNA (tRNA)遺伝子を含んでいた。それまでの約40年間、大腸菌は集中的な遺伝子分析の対象であったにもかかわらず、これらの遺伝子の多くは以前は知られていなかった。コーディング配列の密度は非常に高く、遺伝子間の平均距離はわずか118塩基対であることがわかった。ゲノムには、かなりの数のトランスポゾン、リピート反復配列、詳細不明なプロファージバクテリオファージの残骸、などが含まれていることが判明した[60]

今日、Escherichia属とShigella属(赤痢菌)では、300を超える完全ゲノム配列が報告されている。大腸菌のタイプ株のゲノム配列は、2014年までにこのコレクションに追加されている[61]。これらのシーケンスの比較から、驚くべき多様性の存在が示唆されており、各ゲノムの約20%のみが全分離株に共通している一方で、約80%は分離株の各ゲノムによって異なっている[62]。個々のゲノムには、約4,000から5,500の遺伝子が含まれているが、シーケンスされたすべての大腸菌株(パンゲノム)が持つ全遺伝子(遺伝子カタログ)の総数は16,000を超えている。この非常に多種多様な構成遺伝子は、大腸菌のパンゲノムの2/3が他の種に由来し、水平遺伝子導入の過程で到達したことを意味している、と解釈されている[63]


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