免疫系 腫瘍免疫

免疫系

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2017/09/09 18:45 UTC 版)

腫瘍免疫

マクロファージがん細胞を認識したところ。左下~中央の仮足を持つ不定形の細胞(突起をたくさんもった大きな塊)が癌細胞、それに付着する凸凹の白い小さな球状細胞がマクロファージ。マクロファージは癌細胞と融合し、腫瘍細胞を殺す毒物を注入するだろう。がん治療における免疫療法は活発な医学研究領域の1つである[73]

免疫系の他の重要な役割に腫瘍を見つけて排除することがある。腫瘍による形質転換細胞は正常細胞にない抗原を発現する。免疫系にとってこれらの抗原は非自己に見え、免疫細胞は形質転換した腫瘍細胞を攻撃する。腫瘍によって発現する抗原にはいくつかのソースがある。子宮頚がんを起こすヒトパピローマウイルスのような発がん性ウイルス由来のもの[74][75]。他は正常細胞では低レベルにしか見られないが腫瘍細胞で高レベルで見られるような自己タンパク質である。1例としてチロシナーゼと呼ばれる酵素があり、これは高レベルに発現するとある種の皮膚細胞(例えばメラノサイト)をメラノーマと呼ばれる腫瘍細胞に転換させる[76][77]。腫瘍抗原の3番目の可能なソースは正常細胞では細胞増殖や生存の制御に重要なタンパク質が普通に突然変異を起こしてがん誘起分子に変わる[74][78][79]

免疫系の腫瘍に対する主な反応は異常細胞を細胞傷害性T細胞(CTL)やときにヘルパーT細胞の補助を受けて破壊することである[77][80]。腫瘍抗原はウイルス抗原と同じようにMHCクラスI分子上に提示される。これによって細胞傷害性T細胞(CTL)は腫瘍細胞を異常と見なす[81]NK細胞も同じように腫瘍性の細胞を殺滅し特にMHCクラスI分子が正常に比べ少なく発現されている腫瘍細胞に対して作用する。このことは腫瘍細胞では一般的な現象として見られることである[82]。往々にして腫瘍細胞に対して抗体が産生され補体系にもそれらの細胞を破壊することが図られる[78]

明らかに腫瘍の中には免疫系をうまく逃れてがんに向かうものがある[83]。腫瘍細胞はしばしば表面にMHCクラスI分子を発現する数が少ないので、細胞傷害性T細胞(CTL)による検出を免れる[81]。また腫瘍細胞の中には免疫応答を阻害する産物を放出するものがあり、例えばサイトカインTGF-βを分泌するとマクロファージやリンパ球の活性が抑制される[84]。加えて腫瘍細胞に対し免疫寛容が発達し免疫系が腫瘍細胞をもはや攻撃しないようにさせる場合もある[83]

パラメータドックス的だが、腫瘍細胞がマクロファージをおびき寄せるサイトカインを放出し、マクロファージはその後腫瘍細胞が成長するようなサイトカインと増殖因子を産生するような場合、マクロファージは腫瘍の増殖を促進できる[85]。加えて腫瘍細胞における低酸素状態とマクロファージ産生のサイトカインの組合せは腫瘍細胞が転移をブロックするタンパク質を産生するのを減らし、がん細胞の広がりを助けることになる。




[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ a b c Beck, Gregory; Gail S. Habicht (November 1996). “Immunity and the Invertebrates” (PDF). Scientific American: 60--66. http://www.scs.carleton.ca/~soma/biosec/readings/sharkimmu-sciam-Nov1996.pdf 2007年1月1日閲覧。. 
  2. ^ Smith A.D. (Ed) Oxford dictionary of biochemistry and molecular biology. (1997) Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854768-4
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Alberts, Bruce; Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walters (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell; Fourth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=mboc4.TOC&depth=2. 
  4. ^ a b Litman G, Cannon J, Dishaw L (2005). “Reconstructing immune phylogeny: new perspectives”. Nat Rev Immunol 5 (11): 866--79. doi:10.1038/nri1712. PMID 16261174. 
  5. ^ a b c Mayer, Gene (2006年). “Immunology - Chapter One: Innate (non-specific) Immunity”. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine. 2007年1月1日閲覧。
  6. ^ Boyton R, Openshaw P (2002). “Pulmonary defences to acute respiratory infection”. Br Med Bull 61: 1--12. doi:10.1093/bmb/61.1.1. PMID 11997295. 
  7. ^ Agerberth B, Gudmundsson G. “Host antimicrobial defence peptides in human disease”. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 306: 67--90. doi:10.1007/3-540-29916-5_3. PMID 16909918. 
  8. ^ Moreau J, Girgis D, Hume E, Dajcs J, Austin M, O'Callaghan R (2001). “Phospholipase A(2) in rabbit tears: a host defense against Staphylococcus aureus”. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42 (10): 2347--54. PMID 11527949. http://www.iovs.org/cgi/content/full/42/10/2347. 
  9. ^ Hankiewicz J, Swierczek E (1974). “Lysozyme in human body fluids”. Clin Chim Acta 57 (3): 205--9. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(74)90398-2. PMID 4434640. 
  10. ^ Fair W, Couch J, Wehner N (1976). “Prostatic antibacterial factor. Identity and significance”. Urology 7 (2): 169--77. doi:10.1016/0090-4295(76)90305-8. PMID 54972. 
  11. ^ Yenugu S, Hamil K, Birse C, Ruben S, French F, Hall S (2003). “Antibacterial properties of the sperm-binding proteins and peptides of human epididymis 2 (HE2) family; salt sensitivity, structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli”. Biochem J 372 (Pt 2): 473--83. doi:10.1042/BJ20030225. PMID 12628001. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1223422&blobtype=pdf. 
  12. ^ Gorbach S (1990). “Lactic acid bacteria and human health”. Ann Med 22 (1): 37--41. doi:10.3109/07853899009147239. PMID 2109988. 
  13. ^ Reid G, Bruce A (2003). “Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help?”. Postgrad Med J 79 (934): 428--32. doi:10.1136/pmj.79.934.428. PMID 12954951. http://pmj.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/79/934/428. 
  14. ^ Salminen S, Gueimonde M, Isolauri E (2005). “Probiotics that modify disease risk”. J Nutr 135 (5): 1294--8. PMID 15867327. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/135/5/1294. 
  15. ^ Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky M, McCormick J (2003). “Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice”. Clin Microbiol Rev 16 (4): 658--72. doi:10.1128/CMR.16.4.658-672.2003. PMID 14557292. 
  16. ^ Hill L, Embil J (1986). “Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts”. CMAJ 134 (4): 321--31. PMID 3510698. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1490817&blobtype=pdf. 
  17. ^ Medzhitov R (2007). “Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response”. Nature 449 (7164): 819--26. doi:10.1038/nature06246. PMID 17943118. 
  18. ^ Matzinger P (2002). “the danger model: a renewed sense of self”. Science 296 (5566): 301-5. doi:10.1126/science.1071059. 
  19. ^ Kawai T, Akira S (2006). “Innate immune recognition of viral infection”. Nat Immunol 7 (2): 131--7. doi:10.1038/ni1303. PMID 16424890. 
  20. ^ Miller, SB (2006). “Prostaglandins in Health and Disease: An Overview”. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 36 (1): 37--49. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2006.03.005. PMID 16887467. 
  21. ^ Ogawa Y, Calhoun WJ. (2006). “The role of leukotrienes in airway inflammation”. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 118 (4): 789--98. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.08.009. PMID 17030228. 
  22. ^ Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P, Wang J (2004). “Chemokines and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis and disease”. Cell Mol Immunol 1 (2): 95--104. PMID 16212895. http://www.nature.com/bjp/journal/v147/n1s/pdf/0706475a.pdf. 
  23. ^ Martin P, Leibovich S (2005). “Inflammatory cells during wound repair: the good, the bad and the ugly”. Trends Cell Biol 15 (11): 599--607. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2005.09.002. PMID 16202600. 
  24. ^ a b Rus H, Cudrici C, Niculescu F (2005). “The role of the complement system in innate immunity”. Immunol Res 33 (2): 103--12. doi:10.1385/IR:33:2:103. PMID 16234578. 
  25. ^ Mayer, Gene (2006年). “Immunology - Chapter Two: Complement”. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine. 2007年1月1日閲覧。
  26. ^ a b c d e f Janeway CA, Jr. et al (2005). Immunobiology. (6th ed. ed.). Garland Science. ISBN 0-443-07310-4. 
  27. ^ Liszewski M, Farries T, Lublin D, Rooney I, Atkinson J (1996). “Control of the complement system”. Adv Immunol 61: 201--83. doi:10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60868-8. PMID 8834497. 
  28. ^ Sim R, Tsiftsoglou S (2004). “Proteases of the complement system”. Biochem Soc Trans 32 (Pt 1): 21--7. doi:10.1042/BST0320021. PMID 14748705. http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/bst/032/0021/0320021.pdf. 
  29. ^ Ryter A (1985). “Relationship between ultrastructure and specific functions of macrophages”. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 8 (2): 119--33. doi:10.1016/0147-9571(85)90039-6. PMID 3910340. 
  30. ^ Langermans J, Hazenbos W, van Furth R (1994). “Antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes”. J Immunol Methods 174 (1--2): 185--94. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(94)90021-3. PMID 8083520. 
  31. ^ May R, Machesky L (2001). “Phagocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton”. J Cell Sci 114 (Pt 6): 1061--77. PMID 11228151. http://jcs.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/114/6/1061. 
  32. ^ Salzet M, Tasiemski A, Cooper E (2006). “Innate immunity in lophotrochozoans: the annelids”. Curr Pharm Des 12 (24): 3043--50. doi:10.2174/138161206777947551. PMID 16918433. 
  33. ^ Zen K, Parkos C (2003). “Leukocyte-epithelial interactions”. Curr Opin Cell Biol 15 (5): 557--64. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(03)00103-0. PMID 14519390. 
  34. ^ a b Stvrtinova', Viera; Ja'n Jakubovsky' and Ivan Huli'n (1995). Inflammation and Fever from Pathophysiology: Principles of Disease. Computing Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences: Academic Electronic Press. http://web.archive.org/web/20010711220523/nic.savba.sk/logos/books/scientific/Inffever.html 2007年1月1日閲覧。. 
  35. ^ Bowers, William (2006年). “Immunology -Chapter Thirteen: Immunoregulation”. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine. 2007年1月4日閲覧。
  36. ^ a b Guermonprez P, Valladeau J, Zitvogel L, The'ry C, Amigorena S (2002). “Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells”. Annu Rev Immunol 20: 621--67. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.20.100301.064828. PMID 11861614. 
  37. ^ Middleton D, Curran M, Maxwell L (2002). “Natural killer cells and their receptors”. Transpl Immunol 10 (2--3): 147--64. doi:10.1016/S0966-3274(02)00062-X. PMID 12216946. 
  38. ^ Kariyawasam H, Robinson D (2006). “The eosinophil: the cell and its weapons, the cytokines, its locations”. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 27 (2): 117--27. doi:10.1055/s-2006-939514. PMID 16612762. 
  39. ^ Krishnaswamy G, Ajitawi O, Chi D. “The human mast cell: an overview”. Methods Mol Biol 315: 13--34. PMID 16110146. 
  40. ^ Pancer Z, Cooper M (2006). “The evolution of adaptive immunity”. Annu Rev Immunol 24: 497--518. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090542. PMID 16551257. 
  41. ^ Holtmeier W, Kabelitz D. “gammadelta T cells link innate and adaptive immune responses”. Chem Immunol Allergy 86: 151-83. PMID 15976493. 
  42. ^ a b Understanding the Immune System: How it Works (PDF)”. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). 2007年1月1日閲覧。
  43. ^ Harty J, Tvinnereim A, White D (2000). “CD8+ T cell effector mechanisms in resistance to infection”. Annu Rev Immunol 18: 275-308. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.18.1.275. PMID 10837060. 
  44. ^ a b Radoja S, Frey A, Vukmanovic S (2006). “T-cell receptor signaling events triggering granule exocytosis”. Crit Rev Immunol 26 (3): 265-90. PMID 16928189. 
  45. ^ Abbas A, Murphy K, Sher A (1996). “Functional diversity of helper T lymphocytes”. Nature 383 (6603): 787-93. doi:10.1038/383787a0. PMID 8893001. 
  46. ^ McHeyzer-Williams L, Malherbe L, McHeyzer-Williams M (2006). “Helper T cell-regulated B cell immunity”. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 311: 59-83. doi:10.1007/3-540-32636-7_3. PMID 17048705. 
  47. ^ Kovacs B, Maus M, Riley J, Derimanov G, Koretzky G, June C, Finkel T (2002). “Human CD8+ T cells do not require the polarization of lipid rafts for activation and proliferation”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 99 (23): 15006--11. doi:10.1073/pnas.232058599. PMID 12419850. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&uid=12419850&cmd=showdetailview. 
  48. ^ Grewal I, Flavell R (1998). “CD40 and CD154 in cell-mediated immunity”. Annu Rev Immunol 16: 111-35. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.16.1.111. PMID 9597126. 
  49. ^ Girardi M (2006). “Immunosurveillance and immunoregulation by γδ T cells”. J Invest Dermatol 126 (1): 25--31. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700003. PMID 16417214. 
  50. ^ Holtmeier W, Kabelitz D (2005). “γδ T cells link innate and adaptive immune responses”. Chem Immunol Allergy 86: 151--183. doi:10.1159/000086659. PMID 15976493. 
  51. ^ a b Sproul T, Cheng P, Dykstra M, Pierce S (2000). “A role for MHC class II antigen processing in B cell development”. Int Rev Immunol 19 (2--3): 139--55. doi:10.3109/08830180009088502. PMID 10763706. 
  52. ^ Kehry M, Hodgkin P (1994). “B-cell activation by helper T-cell membranes”. Crit Rev Immunol 14 (3--4): 221--38. PMID 7538767. 
  53. ^ Bowers, William (2006年). “Immunology - Chapter nine: Cells involved in immune responses”. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine. 2007年1月4日閲覧。
  54. ^ M.N. Alder, I.B. Rogozin, L.M. Iyer, G.V. Glazko, M.D. Cooper, Z. Pancer (2005). “Diversity and Function of Adaptive Immune Receptors in a Jawless Vertebrate”. Science 310 (5756): 1970--1973. doi:10.1126/science.1119420. PMID 16373579. 
  55. ^ Saji F, Samejima Y, Kamiura S, Koyama M (1999). “Dynamics of immunoglobulins at the feto-maternal interface”. Rev Reprod 4 (2): 81--9. doi:10.1530/ror.0.0040081. PMID 10357095. http://ror.reproduction-online.org/cgi/reprint/4/2/81.pdf. 
  56. ^ Van de Perre P (2003). “Transfer of antibody via mother's milk”. Vaccine 21 (24): 3374--6. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00336-0. PMID 12850343. 
  57. ^ Keller, Margaret A. and E. Richard Stiehm (2000). “Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13 (4): 602--614. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.4.602-614.2000. PMID 11023960. http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/13/4/602. 
  58. ^ Death and DALY estimates for 2002 by cause for WHO Member States. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  59. ^ Singh M, O'Hagan D (1999). “Advances in vaccine adjuvants”. Nat Biotechnol 17 (11): 1075--81. doi:10.1038/15058. PMID 10545912. 
  60. ^ Aw D, Silva A, Palmer D (2007). “Immunosenescence: emerging challenges for an ageing population”. Immunology 120 (4): 435--446. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02555.x. PMID 17313487. 
  61. ^ a b c d Chandra, RK (1997). “Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol 66: 460S--463S. PMID 9250133. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/66/2/460S.  Free full-text pdf available
  62. ^ Miller JF (2002). “The discovery of thymus function and of thymus-derived lymphocytes”. Immunol. Rev. 185: 7--14. PMID 12190917. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1034/j.1600-065X.2002.18502.x. 
  63. ^ Joos L, Tamm M (2005). “Breakdown of pulmonary host defense in the immunocompromised host: cancer chemotherapy”. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2 (5): 445--8. doi:10.1513/pats.200508-097JS. PMID 16322598. http://pats.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/2/5/445. 
  64. ^ Copeland K, Heeney J (1996). “T helper cell activation and human retroviral pathogenesis”. Microbiol Rev 60 (4): 722--42. PMID 8987361. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=239461&blobtype=pdf. 
  65. ^ Miller J (1993). “Self-nonself discrimination and tolerance in T and B lymphocytes”. Immunol Res 12 (2): 115--30. doi:10.1007/BF02918299. PMID 8254222. 
  66. ^ a b c d Ghaffar, Abdul (2006年). “Immunology - Chapter Seventeen: Hypersensitivity Reactions”. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School of Medicine. 2007年1月1日閲覧。
  67. ^ Bickle T, Kru"ger D (1993). “Biology of DNA restriction”. Microbiol Rev 57 (2): 434--50. PMID 8336674. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=372918&blobtype=pdf. 
  68. ^ Barrangou R, Fremaux C, Deveau H, et al (March 2007). “CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes”. Science (journal) 315 (5819): 1709--12. doi:10.1126/science.1138140. PMID 17379808. 
  69. ^ Brouns SJ, Jore MM, Lundgren M, et al (August 2008). “Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes”. Science (journal) 321 (5891): 960--4. doi:10.1126/science.1159689. PMID 18703739. 
  70. ^ Stram Y, Kuzntzova L. (2006). “Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference”. Virus Genes 32 (3): 299--306. doi:10.1007/s11262-005-6914-0. PMID 16732482. 
  71. ^ a b Schneider, David (Spring 2005). “Innate Immunity - Lecture 4: Plant immune responses”. Stanford University Department of Microbiology and Immunology. 2007年1月1日閲覧。
  72. ^ Baulcombe D (2004). “RNA silencing in plants”. Nature 431 (7006): 356--63. doi:10.1038/nature02874. PMID 15372043. 
  73. ^ Morgan R et al. (2006). “Cancer regression in patients after transfer of genetically engineered lymphocytes”. Science 314: 126--129. doi:10.1126/science.1129003. PMID 16946036. 
  74. ^ a b Andersen MH, Schrama D, Thor Straten P, Becker JC (2006). “Cytotoxic T cells”. J Invest Dermatol 126 (1): 32--41. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700001. PMID 16417215. 
  75. ^ Boon T, van der Bruggen P (1996). “Human tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes”. J Exp Med 183: 725--29. doi:10.1084/jem.183.3.725. PMID 8642276. 
  76. ^ Castelli C, Rivoltini L, Andreola G, Carrabba M, Renkvist N, Parmiani G (2000). “T cell recognition of melanoma-associated antigens”. J Cell Physiol 182: 323--31. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(200003)182:3<323::AID-JCP2>3.0.CO;2-#. PMID 10653598. 
  77. ^ a b Romero P, Cerottini JC, Speiser DE (2006). “The human T cell response to melanoma antigens”. Adv Immunol. 92: 187--224. doi:10.1016/S0065-2776(06)92005-7. PMID 17145305. 
  78. ^ a b Guevara-Patino JA, Turk MJ, Wolchok JD, Houghton AN (2003). “Immunity to cancer through immune recognition of altered self: studies with melanoma”. Adv Cancer Res. 90: 157--77. doi:10.1016/S0065-230X(03)90005-4. PMID 14710950. 
  79. ^ Renkvist N, Castelli C, Robbins PF, Parmiani G (2001). “A listing of human tumor antigens recognized by T cells”. Cancer Immunol Immunother 50: 3--15. doi:10.1007/s002620000169. PMID 11315507. 
  80. ^ Gerloni M, Zanetti M. (2005). “CD4 T cells in tumor immunity”. . Springer Semin Immunopathol 27 (1): 37--48. doi:10.1007/s00281-004-0193-z. PMID 15965712. 
  81. ^ a b Seliger B, Ritz U, Ferrone S (2006). “Molecular mechanisms of HLA class I antigen abnormalities following viral infection and transformation”. Int J Cancer 118 (1): 129--38. doi:10.1002/ijc.21312. PMID 16003759. 
  82. ^ Hayakawa Y, Smyth MJ. (2006). “Innate immune recognition and suppression of tumors”. Adv Cancer Res 95: 293--322. doi:10.1016/S0065-230X(06)95008-8. PMID 16860661. 
  83. ^ a b Seliger B (2005). “Strategies of tumor immune evasion”. BioDrugs 19 (6): 347--54. doi:10.2165/00063030-200519060-00002. PMID 16392887. 
  84. ^ Frumento G, Piazza T, Di Carlo E, Ferrini S (2006). “Targeting tumor-related immunosuppression for cancer immunotherapy”. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 6 (3): 233--7. doi:10.2174/187153006778250019. PMID 17017974. 
  85. ^ Stix, Gary (July 2007). “A Malignant Flame” (PDF). Scientific American: 60--67. http://podcast.sciam.com/daily/pdf/sa_d_podcast_070619.pdf 2007年1月1日閲覧。. 
  86. ^ Wira, CR; Crane-Godreau M, Grant K (2004). “Endocrine regulation of the mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract”. In In: Ogra PL, Mestecky J, Lamm ME, Strober W, McGhee JR, Bienenstock J (eds.). Mucosal Immunology. San Francisco: Elsevier. ISBN 0124915434. 
  87. ^ Lang, TJ (2004). “Estrogen as an immunomodulator”. Clin Immunol 113: 224–230. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2004.05.011. PMID 15507385. 
    Moriyama, A; Shimoya K, Ogata I et al. (1999). “Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) concentrations in cervical mucus of women with normal menstrual cycle”. Molecular Human Reproduction 5: 656–661. doi:10.1093/molehr/5.7.656. PMID 10381821. http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/5/7/656. 
    Cutolo, M; Sulli A, Capellino S, Villaggio B, Montagna P, Seriolo B, Straub RH (2004). “Sex hormones influence on the immune system: basic and clinical aspects in autoimmunity”. Lupus 13: 635–638. doi:10.1191/0961203304lu1094oa. PMID 15485092. 
    King, AE; Critchley HOD, Kelly RW (2000). “Presence of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in human endometrium and first trimester decidua suggests an antibacterial role”. Molecular Human Reproduction 6: 191–196. doi:10.1093/molehr/6.2.191. PMID 10655462. http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/6/2/191. 
  88. ^ Fimmel; Zouboulis CC (2005). “Influence of physiological androgen levels on wound healing and immune status in men”. Aging Male 8: 166–174. doi:10.1080/13685530500233847. PMID 16390741. 
  89. ^ Dorshkind, K; Horseman ND (2000). “The Roles of Prolactin, Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, and Thyroid Hormones in Lymphocyte Development and Function: Insights from Genetic Models of Hormones and Hormone Receptor Deficiency”. Endocrine Reviews 21: 292–312. doi:10.1210/er.21.3.292. PMID 10857555. http://edrv.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/21/3/292?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=Dorshkind%2C+K%3B+Horseman+ND+&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT. 
  90. ^ Nagpal, Sunil; Songqing Naand and Radhakrishnan Rathnachalam (2005). “Noncalcemic Actions of Vitamin D Receptor Ligands”. Endocrine Reviews 26 (5): 662–687. doi:10.1210/er.2004-0002. PMID 15798098. http://edrv.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/5/662. .
  91. ^ Hertoghe, T (2005). “The “multiple hormone deficiency” theory of aging: Is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?”. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1051: 448–465. doi:10.1196/annals.1322.035. PMID 16399912. 
  92. ^ Klein, JR (2006). “The immune system as a regulator of thyroid hormone activity”. Exp Biol Med 231: 229–236. PMID 16514168. 
  93. ^ Lange, T; Perras B, Fehm HL, Born J (2003). “Sleep Enhances the Human Antibody response to Hepatitis A Vaccination”. Psychosomatic Medicine 65: 831–835. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000091382.61178.F1. PMID 14508028. http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/content/full/65/5/831. 
  94. ^ Khansari, DN; Murgo AJ, Faith RE (1990). “Effects of stress on the immune system”. Immunology Today 11: 170–175. doi:10.1016/0167-5699(90)90069-L. PMID 2186751. 
  95. ^ Pond, CM (2005). “Adipose tissue and the immune system”. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 73: 17--30. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2005.04.005. PMID 15946832. 
  96. ^ Langley-Evans, SC; Carrington LJ (2006). “Diet and the developing immune system”. Lupus 15: 746–752. doi:10.1177/0961203306070001. PMID 17153845. 
  97. ^ Spelman, K; Burns J, Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M (2006). “Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators”. Alternative Medicine reviews 11: 128–150. PMID 16813462. 
    Brush, J; Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A, Chan T, Connelly E, Soumyanth A, Buresh R, Barrett R, Zwickey H (2006). “The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans”. Phytotherapy Research 20: 687–695. doi:10.1002/ptr.1938. PMID 16807880. 
  98. ^ a b Taylor A, Watson C, Bradley J (2005). “Immunosuppressive agents in solid organ transplantation: Mechanisms of action and therapeutic efficacy”. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 56 (1): 23--46. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2005.03.012. PMID 16039869. 
  99. ^ Barnes P (2006). “Corticosteroids: the drugs to beat”. Eur J Pharmacol 533 (1--3): 2--14. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.12.052. PMID 16436275. 
  100. ^ Masri M (2003). “The mosaic of immunosuppressive drugs”. Mol Immunol 39 (17--18): 1073--7. doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(03)00075-0. PMID 12835079. 
  101. ^ Welling GW, Wiejer WJ, van der Zee R, Welling-Werster S. (1985). “Prediction of sequential antigenic regions in proteins”. J Mol Recognit 88 (2): 215--8. PMID 2411595. 
  102. ^ Sollner J, Mayer B. (2006). “Machine learning approaches for prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins”. Journal of Molecular Recognition 19 (3): 200--8. doi:10.1002/jmr.771. PMID 16598694. 
  103. ^ Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP. (2005). “Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes”. BMC Bioinformatics 6 (1): 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-6-79. PMID 15921533. 
  104. ^ Flower DR, Doytchinova IA. (2002). “Immunoinformatics and the prediction of immunogenicity”. Appl Bioinformatics 1 (4): 167--76. PMID 15130835. 
  105. ^ a b Finlay B, McFadden G (2006). “Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens”. Cell 124 (4): 767--82. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.01.034. PMID 16497587. 
  106. ^ Cianciotto NP. (2005). “Type II secretion: a protein secretion system for all seasons”. Trends Microbiol. 13 (12): 581--8. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.09.005. PMID 16216510. 
  107. ^ Winstanley C, Hart CA (2001). “Type III secretion systems and pathogenicity islands”. J Med Microbiol. 50 (2): 116--26. PMID 11211218. 
  108. ^ Finlay B, Falkow S (1997). “Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited”. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61 (2): 136--69. PMID 9184008. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/61/2/136.pdf. 
  109. ^ Kobayashi H (2005). “Airway biofilms: implications for pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory tract infections”. Treat Respir Med 4 (4): 241--53. doi:10.2165/00151829-200504040-00003. PMID 16086598. 
  110. ^ Housden N, Harrison S, Roberts S, Beckingham J, Graille M, Stura E, Gore M (2003). “Immunoglobulin-binding domains: Protein L from Peptostreptococcus magnus”. Biochem Soc Trans 31 (Pt 3): 716--8. doi:10.1042/BST0310716. PMID 12773190. http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/bst/031/0716/0310716.pdf. 
  111. ^ Burton, Dennis R.; Robyn L. Stanfield and Ian A. Wilson (2005). “Antibody vs. HIV in a clash of evolutionary titans”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 (42): 14943--8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0505126102. PMID 16219699. 
  112. ^ Cantin R, Methot S, Tremblay MJ. (2005). “Plunder and stowaways: incorporation of cellular proteins by enveloped viruses”. J Virol. 79 (11): 6577-87. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.11.6577-6587.2005. PMID 15890896. 
  113. ^ Retief F, Cilliers L (1998). “The epidemic of Athens, 430-426 BC”. S Afr Med J 88 (1): 50--3. PMID 9539938. 
  114. ^ Plotkin S (2005). “Vaccines: past, present and future”. Nat Med 11 (4 Suppl): S5--11. doi:10.1038/nm1209. PMID 15812490. 
  115. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905 Nobelprize.org Accessed January 8 2007.
  116. ^ Major Walter Reed, Medical Corps, U.S. Army Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Accessed January 8 2007.
  117. ^ Metchnikoff, Elie; Translated by F.G. Binnie. (1905) (Full Text Version: Google Books). Immunity in Infective Diseases. Cambridge University Press. http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC03666307&id=ywKp9YhK5t0C&printsec=titlepage&vq=Ehrlich&dq=history+of+humoral+immunity. 
  118. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908 Nobelprize.org Accessed January 8 2007






英和和英テキスト翻訳>> Weblio翻訳
英語⇒日本語日本語⇒英語
  

辞書ショートカット

カテゴリ一覧

全て

ビジネス

業界用語

コンピュータ

電車

自動車・バイク

工学

建築・不動産

学問

文化

生活

ヘルスケア

趣味

スポーツ

生物

食品

人名

方言

辞書・百科事典

すべての辞書の索引

「免疫系」の関連用語

免疫系のお隣キーワード

   

英語⇒日本語
日本語⇒英語
   

画像から探す

円山川

ワックス

高度道路交通システム

筑後川丸

BMW X3

ごぼう天

松下幸之助

海燕23





免疫系のページの著作権
Weblio 辞書情報提供元は参加元一覧にて確認できます。

  
ウィキペディアウィキペディア
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.
この記事は、ウィキペディアの免疫系 (改訂履歴)の記事を複製、再配布したものにあたり、GNU Free Documentation Licenseというライセンスの下で提供されています。 Weblio辞書に掲載されているウィキペディアの記事も、全てGNU Free Documentation Licenseの元に提供されております。

©2017 Weblio RSS