免疫系 病原体の操作

免疫系

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2017/09/09 18:45 UTC 版)

病原体の操作

病原体の成功は宿主の免疫応答から逃れる能力に依存している。したがって病原体は宿主にうまく感染できるような方法を免疫を媒介にした破壊を免れつつ、いくつか発達させてきた[105]。細菌はしばしば物理的障壁についてはそれを分泌酵素消化することによって切り抜ける。例えばII型分泌系の利用などである[106]。別の方法としてはIII型分泌系の利用があり、宿主細胞に穴を開ける管を挿入する。直接この管を通じて病原体から宿主へタンパク質を移動させる。管を通って輸送されるタンパク質はしばしば宿主防御を停止するのに用いられる[107]

いくつかの病原体が自然免疫系から免れるのに用いている回避戦略は、細胞内複製である(細胞内病原性とも呼ばれる)。この場合病原体は生活史の大部分を宿主細胞内で過ごす。そこでは、免疫細胞、抗体、それに補体に直接接触することはなくそれらから保護される。細胞内病原体の例としてはウイルス食中毒細菌のサルモネラ菌真核生物寄生虫であるマラリアを起こすもの(Plasmodium falciparum)やリーシュマニア症を起こすもの(Leishmania spp.)などである。結核菌Mycobacterium tuberculosis)のような他の細菌は補体による溶解を阻止する保護カプセル中に生存する[108]。多くの病原体が宿主の免疫応答を弱め方向を間違うような化学物を分泌する[105]。細菌の中には免疫系の細胞やタンパク質から守るために生物的フィルムを形成するものがある。そのような生物的フィルムは多くの感染成功例に見られ、例えば嚢胞性線維症が特徴の慢性緑膿菌感染やバークホルデリア・セノセパシア英語版感染がある[109]。ほかに抗体に結合する表面タンパク質を発現して抗体の効力を落とす細菌がある。この例には連鎖球菌Gタンパク質)、黄色ブドウ球菌(Aタンパク質)、ペプトスプレプトコッカス・マグナス英語版(Lタンパク質)がある[110]

ウイルスが適応免疫系から免れる機構はもっと込み入っている。簡単な方法は、必須なエピトープは隠しもって全く必須でないウイルス表面上のエピトープを素早く変化させることである(アミノ酸か糖あるいは両方)。例えばHIVは、宿主のターゲット細胞に侵入するのに必須なウイルス外膜のタンパク質に絶えず突然変異を起こす。抗原のこれら頻繁な変化はこれらのタンパク質を対象とするワクチンを失敗させていることを説明するだろう。抗原を宿主分子でマスクする方法は宿主細胞から逃れるのによく見られる戦略である[111]。HIVではウイルスを覆う外膜は宿主細胞のもっとも外側の膜から作られている。このような"自己を覆い隠す"ウイルスは免疫系が"非自己"と認識するのを困難にしている[112]




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