アイヤーヴァリとは?

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アイヤーヴァリ

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』 (2016/11/04 22:52 UTC 版)

アイヤーヴァリ(タミル語:அய்யாவழி [Ayyavaḻi] - 父の教え)は、19世紀中期の南インドに起源を持つ一神教[1] centered on en:Ayya Vaikundar and on his life and teachings as present in Ayyavazhi scriptures. 支持者たちは独立した宗教だと考えているが、インド政府から公式な認定は受けておらず、[2]信者はヒンドゥー教徒として集計されている。[3][4]また信者以外でも一部の社会学者[5]や宗教学者[6][7]はアイヤーヴァリを独立した宗教だと見なしている。


[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ The 'zhi' (ழி) in the word, 'Ayyavazhi', is a retroflex, and it is correctly transliterated according to the National Library at Calcutta romanization as ayyavali.
  2. ^ G.Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, Page 120,121.
  3. ^ Dr.R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, Ram Publishers, 2000, Page 64, Birth of a New Sect. (This book says that Ayyavazhi was a sect of Hinduism, Officially which indirectly states that Ayyavazhi followers are counted with Hinduism during Census)
  4. ^ Madurai News Letter, Thozhamai Illam, Kanyakumari, Page 9. This site (News letter) tells about a discussion in swamithoppe, and Ayyavazhi as an important sect of Hinduism See this Pdf
  5. ^ V.T. Chellam's Thamizhaka Varalarum Panpadum Chapter 12, Page 493 Heading "Vaikunda!--> Samikal (1810 - 1851) " Line 11 "Ayyavazhi religion gets originated".
  6. ^ G.Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, Page 91 "By the middle of nineteenth century, AV had come to be a recognisable religious phenomenon, making it's presence felt in South Tiruvitankur and in the southern parts of Tirunelveli."
  7. ^ Samuel Mateer, The Land of Charity, [1] page 222 - 223, "this singular people display considerable zeal in the defence and propagation"
  8. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, The Religious Phenomenon of Ayya Vali, Page 111-113,
  9. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, Ram Publishers, Page 98.
  10. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, 2003, The Social Discourse of Ayyavali, Page:160-161.
  11. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, A Sequential Narration Of The Salient Episodes From The Mythography of Ayya Vali, Page 220
  12. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, 2000, Page 100, "At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  13. ^ V.T. Chellam's, Thamizhaka Varalarum Panpadum Chapter 12, Page 494 "The refined religious system by Vaikunda Samikal spread in the Southern districts of Thiruvithancore and Tamil Nadu."
  14. ^ See the LMS Reports gathered in the article Ayyavazhi in reports by Christian missionaries from the book Religion and Subaltern Agency.
  15. ^ Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, Page 63, "The religious reform of Sri Vaikunda Swamigal left an everlasting influence on South Travancorean society."
  16. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, Page 90-91.
  17. ^ Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, Page 86.
  18. ^ R.Shanmugam's, Narayana Kulatthil Narayanar Avataram, Page:188
  19. ^ Dr.R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, Ram Publishers, 2000, Page 68, Sub heading: "Reverence as Ayya"
  20. ^ Akilathirattu ammanai Arappadanool, Fisrt Stage, page 27, published by Vaikundar Seva Sangam
  21. ^ Arisundara Mani's Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai Chapter 1, Page 4.
  22. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 90
  23. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 91
  24. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 91 "How ever, people from other 'casts' too formed part of the gathering"
  25. ^ G.Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency published by Department of Christian Studies, University of Madras, Chapter 5, page 91: "By the middle of nineteenth century, AV (abbreviation of Ayyavazhi) had come to be a recognisable religious phenomenon, making it's presence felt in South Tiruvitankur (Travancore) and in the southern parts of Tirunelveli. From the LMS reports, one gathers the information that AV was spreading with certain 'extraordinary' speed."
  26. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 92
  27. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 120 "Vaikunda cami seems to have chosen these disciples to be his close associates and to propagate his teachings and ideas to the people"
  28. ^ N. Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya this is a reVaikuntar - The Light of the World Chapter 4, Page 21 "The temple is managed by the Gurus of Lord Vaikuntar's gurukulam. The Gurus are the descendants of Guru Podukutti."
  29. ^ N. Elango & Vijaya Shanathi Elango 1997, Ayya Vaikuntar - The Light of The World Chapter 8, Page - 41 to 44 (sources).
  30. ^ Cf. Ward & Conner, Geographical and Statistical Memoir, page 133; V. Nagam Aiya, The Travancore State Manual, Volume-2, Madras:AES, 1989 (1906), page 72.
  31. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, Page 24.
  32. ^ Cf. A. Sreedhara Menon's, A Survey of Kerala History, page 277.
  33. ^ Cf. Ponneelan's, Vaikunta Cuvamiyum Avar Kalamum, Mimeograph note, page 6.
  34. ^ N. Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya Vaikuntar - The Light of the World Chapter 4, Page 21-22 "The Gurus are Payyan Chella Raj, Bala Prajapathi, Bala Janathipathi, Balalokathipathi, Payyan Sami, Thangapandian and Sekar to name a few. Bala Prajapathi is the most popular personality of all of them."
  35. ^ There is no records for the exact number of worship centers. N. Elango & Vijaya Shanathi Elango 1997, Ayya Vaikuntar - The Light of The World Chapter 4, Page - 22, "He has laid foundation stones for more than one thousand nizhal thangals."
  36. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 119 "It is presented as if Vishnu is narrating the whole story to his consort Leksmi"
  37. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 118-119 "The author claims that God woke him up during sleep and commissioned him to write it by 'telling' him what to write"
  38. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 119 "Arulnul, considered to be a supplementary (tunainul) to Akilattirattu, is a collection of a few short literatures composed by different arulalarkal (person who had the ability to 'get divinised') whose names are unknown. "
  39. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 117 " Five such patikal are believed to have emerged during the time of Vaikuntacami. "
  40. ^ N. Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango 1997 Ayya Vaikuntar - The Light of the World Chapter 8, Page 41 " The first Pathi is Swamithoppu itself. It is the head quarters of Ayyavazhi. "
  41. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 117 " However, there is also another list which includes Vakaipati where tuvaiyal tavacu took place "
  42. ^ N. Elango & Vijaya Shanthi Elango, Ayya Vaikuntar the light of the world, Chapter 8, Page 41 (Panchappathi)
  43. ^ Arisundara Mani's Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai (Additional) Page XII " Athara thana vilakka attavanai "
  44. ^ Akilam15:39 "Petti ceelai Uduthu Periya Thirunama Pottumittu"
  45. ^ Sivakanda Athikara Pathiram, First Act. (source: N.Vivekanandan's Arul Nool - Moolamum Uraiyum, page 62
  46. ^ There is no written references to this but there is a painting at the residence of Bala Prajapathi Adikalar which was considered older not less than 50 years. There are also oral traditions which suggests the same age for this sumbolism.
  47. ^ A. Arisundara Mani's Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai (Additional) Page XII " Athara thana vilakka attavanai " .
  48. ^ Tha.Krishna Nathan's, Ayyaa vaikuNdarin vaazvum sinthanaiyum (Tamil), Chapter - 4, page 83. (This citation was included here from Tamil wikipedia article)
  49. ^ G.Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency Chapter 5, Page - 118. Vaikuntacami is said to have established seven of these nilaltankalkal at Chettykudiyirrupu, Agastisvaram, Palur, Chundavilai, Vadalivilai, Kadampankulam and Pampankulam.
  50. ^ G.Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency Chapter 5, Page - 118. Even now charity is one of the main activities conducted in these centers.
  51. ^ Dr. Poulose in his book Advaita Philosophy of Brahmashri Chattampi Swamikal (Ayyavazhi Publications), says that Atmanada Swamikal was the disciple of Ayya Vaikundar and Atmanada Swamikal learned the Marmavidya in Sidha vidya and ghecherividya (Chinmudra) from Ayya Vaikundar and Atmanada Swamikal further taught all these vidyas to his disciple, Sri Chattampi Swamikal. The book also says that when Swami Vivekananda arrived in Ernakulam, Sri Chattampi Swamikal taught this Chinmudra to him.
  52. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 114 " Other verse from Akilattirattu like, 'cast away the eighteen castes and the demons into the mountain and the sea', 'do not discriminate between the powreful and powerless', 'the caste would disappear by itself', etc., point to the fact of a considerable indoctrination against the inequalities of Castes."
  53. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 103
  54. ^ The UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador, Madanjeet Singh's, The Sasia Story ISBN 92-3-103992-X, Page:18
  55. ^ Akilam10:664 (Thiruvasakam - 2) .
  56. ^ Akilam10: (Thiruvasakam - 2) Source text: Akilathirattu Ammanai published by P. Thangaiyah Nadar, Page - 225 .
  57. ^ It is the story of God coming to transform the world into tarmayukam and rule over it - Akilam one - 1:108,109
  58. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 118 "Even now charity on food is one of the main activities conducted in these centers."
  59. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, page 151 "Canror (Santror)is a name that stands for a people who are the subject of the religious vision of AV (Ayyavazhi)
  60. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, page 151
  61. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, page 151 "Today, most of the theologians of AV emphasis more on the religious dimension of this category than the social."
  62. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Socil Equality in South India, 2000, page 23, line 5.
  63. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, page 152
  64. ^ G.Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, page 152
  65. ^ As noted in the site nadar.kuttyjapan.com Views based on the extracts of early historians including Herodotus.
  66. ^ V.T. Chellam's Thamizaka Varalarum Panpadum, Chapter 12, Page - 493
  67. ^ Akilam 9:667-670 (Narayana call Vaikundar "You are my son who was adored by all mystics"
  68. ^ Arisundara Mani's Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai, Chapter 1, Page -36, "Kroni is nothing but a subtle revelation of spiritual ignorance."
  69. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, 2003, Page 19
  70. ^ Akilathirattu Page 252: "the eighteen castes gathered in one place and bathed from the same well."
  71. ^ Akilam 12:151 - "Poorana Vetha Purana mun akamangkal"
  72. ^ "He created a Veda (scripture) of his own intention". - Akilam5:571
  73. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 93 "the followers or 'the disciples' of AV too had practiced shamanism in different centers of AV."
  74. ^ G.Patrck's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, page 93 " A verse in Arulnul (Arul Nool) confirms the existence of shamans in AV centers for the purpose of imparting knowledge to people"
  75. ^ Ebenezer Lewis (ed.) "Report of the Santhapuram District for the year 1858", in Annual Report of the Travancore District Committee in Connection with the LMS for the year 1858, Nagercoil: London Missionary Press, 1859, Page 4-5. " there is a widow living at this place who was a follower of Muthukutty. She was also a fortune-teller and pretended to cure diseases by incantations. She allowed her hair to grow matted like that of Pantaram, abstained from fish on Tuesdays and Fridays, performed her ablutions in the sea, sang for four or five hours together in honour of her swami and was occasionally under the influence of the devil"
  76. ^ Akilam
  77. ^ On other Point Of View this quote refers to "those who teaches the core ideas of Ayyavazhi scriptures."
  78. ^ G. Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern agency Chapter 6, Page 151, "A reading of the mythography of AV makes explicite the fact that the essence of this vision is an account of a history - a past, a present, and a future - constructed by weaving together of empirical facts as well as mythical accounts."
  79. ^ G. Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern agency Chapter 6, Page 151, "It is fitting to analyse and see how these basic concepts have been woven together to give a symbolic vision which is at once religious and social. "
  80. ^ Akilam8:Thiru Nadana Ula -6th&11th Venpaas (a species of verse).
  81. ^ Samuel Zecharia (1826-1906), one of the prominent pastors of the London Mission Society, testifies to the existence of this well in his book titled The London Missionary Society in South Travancore 1805-1855, Nagercoil: LMS Press, 1897, Page-201.
  82. '^ Cf. M.S.S. Pandiyan's Meanings of 'Colonialism and 'Nationalism Page 180.
  83. ^ LMS Report for the year 1838, Page 71 says "About 70 families of this sect, having subsequently established a community of goods, removed under the guidance of a man of some influence to a part of the seashore of Tinnevelly, where they erected huts, performed frequent ablutions, and often assembled to hear the dreams and vision of their leader and to witness the miracles he was said to perform."
  84. ^ Ari Sundara Mani's, Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai, 2002.
  85. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, Page - 159 says, "AV, having emerged in a context of distress, proposes an emancipatory utopa under the banner of tarmayukam."
  86. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, Page - 159 says, "The core of the proposal was that Vaikuntacami had come to establish and rule over a tarmayukam in the place of the kaliyukam."
  87. ^ . Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, Page - 109 says, "Akilattirattu begins its narration by stating that the account contained in it is the story of God coming into this kaliyukam to transform it into tarmayukam and to rule over it."
  88. ^ G.Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, Page - 161 "This is in contrast to the circular conception of time that eternally with Vaikuntacami ruling over it as the everlasting king."
  89. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 6, Page - 161 , "Yet another point to be taken note of in the symbolic vision of AV is its conception of time. AV gives a list of seven aeons, and, at the end of it, postulates a tarmayukam that is to exist
  90. ^ Akilam17:1161,
  91. ^ Akilam8:Thiruvasakam - 1 (As per Akilam this Thiruvasakam is written down by Sarasvathi because the previouse religious ideas and scripture were destroyed by Kaliyan.)
  92. ^ Ayya Vaikundar Nootti ezhubathavathu Avathara thina Vizha Sirappu Malar Published by Vaikundar Seva Sangham, (T. Ashok Kumar) Page 2, Line 17 "some think that Kali is powerful now. But Kali is jailed in Kayilai which is known as Vannima Mandapam..."
  93. ^ Arisundara Mani's Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai, Chapter 1, Page 1, Line 1-2, "Sreehari who is known as Athi Narayana is praised as Ayya."
  94. ^ Samithopu Ayya Vaikunda Suvami 172-vathu avathara thina vizha, Thina Malar vazangkum Avathara Thina vizha Sirappu Malar, Page 3, " ...but it is questionable that how many people know that. Every one who came to know newly about Ayya wonders and... " Bala Prajapathi Adikalar writes about Vaikundar.
  95. ^ G. Patrick's Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter - 5, Page 106
  96. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for social Equality in South India, Page 100.
  97. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, The Religious Phenomenon of Ayya Vali, "Ayya Vali - A New and Singular Religious Phenomenon" , Page 120.
  98. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, The Religious Phenomenon of Ayya Vali, "Rituals" , Page 98.
  99. ^ Akilattirattu Ammanai published by T.Palaramachandran Nadar, 9th impression, 1989, Page 180.
  100. ^ Akilattirattu Ammanai published by T.Palaramachandran Nadar, 9th impression, 1989, Page 280 -281.
  101. ^ G.Patrick's, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, The Religious Phenomenon of Ayya Vali, "Ayya Vali - A New and Singular Religious Phenomenon" , Page 120.
  102. ^ Ari Sundara Mani's, Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayan Urai, Ayya Vaikundar Thirukkudumbam, 2002, page 4.
  103. ^ See http://www.vaikunt.org/AyyaVaikuntar/index.htm







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